It would be interesting, in further studies, to extend the sampling to more host species in order to get an accurate idea of the diversity of Arsenophonus lineages. www.selleckchem.com/products/r428.html However, a complete understanding of the Arsenophonus phylogeny would require more molecular markers. This could be achieved through the use of other housekeeping genes for the MLST approach or insertion sequences and mobile elements, which is now possible since the genome of Arsenophonus has been
completely sequenced. We found intergenic recombinations using only three genes, suggesting that such events could be frequent in the Arsenophonus genome. Understanding the Arsenophonus genomic features is crucial for further research on the evolution and infection dynamics of these bacteria, and on their role on the host phenotype and adaptation. According
to these effects on host physiology and phenotype, they could then be potentially exploited in efforts to manipulate pest species such as B. tabaci. Acknowledgements This study was partly funded by CNRS (IFR41-UMR5558), the CIRAD and the “Conseil Regional de La Reunion”. MT is a recipient of a PhD fellowship from the Conseil find more Regional de La Reunion and the EU (European Social Fund). We would like to thank P. Lefeuvre for his advice on the use of RDP3. This article has been published as part of BMC Microbiology Volume 11 Supplement 1, 2012: Arthropod symbioses: from fundamental studies to pest and disease mangement. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/12?issue=S1. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1. Partial Glycogen branching enzyme mitochondrial COI gene phylogeny of Aleyrodidae individuals used in this study. The tree was constructed using a Bayesian analysis. Node supports were evaluated by posterior probabilities using the Trn+I+G model. The sequences used in this study are recorded in GenBank
as: AnSL Benin (Be8-23) [JF743056], Ms Madagascar (TACH3) [JF743052], Reunion (SPaubF29) [JF743055], Seychelles (SE616) [JF743053] and Bemisia afer (Saaub53) [JF743054]. Figure S2. Arsenophonus phylogeny using maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses based on sequences of the three genes fbaA (A), ftsK (B) and yaeT (C). Different evolution models were used to reconstruct the phylogeny for each gene [fbaA (HKY), ftsK (GTR), yaeT (HKY+I)]. Bootstrap values are shown at the nodes for ML analysis and the second number represents the Bayesian posterior probabilities. Table S1. Analysis of molecular variance computed by the method of Excoffier et al.  on samples of Arsenophonus from several Aleyrodidae species. Group denomination was Mocetinostat order According to their hosts, i.e. Bemisia tabaci: ASL, AnSL, Q2, Q3, Ms, Bemisia afer, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Each species (group) was separated into populations corresponding to location of sampling. *p < 0.05. Table S2.