LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly correlated with pro

LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly correlated with protein concentrations and the LHR gene was abundantly expressed in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, rumen, small intestine, kidney, and uterine tissues. When comparing the expression levels of LHR during the 4 estrous phases in particular tissues, the results showed that LHR expression levels were significantly different and relatively lower at the estrous stage in a number of non-gonadal tissues. The trends of change in LHR expression levels

were highly significantly correlated between hypothalamus and rectum, hypophysis and oviduct, ileum and uterus, and among jejunum, olfactory bulb, and kidney (P < 0.01), and there was also significant correlation between duodenum

and oviduct, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata, jejunum and uterus, omasum and abomasum, RepSox clinical trial and reticulum and colon (P < 0.05). These CCI-779 mouse results indicate that the ovine LHR gene (or LH) might control important mechanisms in non-gonadal tissues and that the level of LH activity in some tissues may be influenced by hormonal status during the estrous cycle.”
“Purpose: Solar energy has a number of short-and long-term detrimental effects on skin that can result in several skin disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on endogenous systems within the skin for protection from solar radiation and present research findings to date, on the exogenous options for such skin photoprotection.

Results: Endogenous systems for protection from solar radiation include melanin synthesis, epidermal thickening and an antioxidant network. Existing lesions are eliminated via repair mechanisms. Cells with irreparable damage undergo apoptosis.

check details Excessive and chronic sun exposure however can overwhelm these mechanisms leading to photoaging and the development of cutaneous malignancies. Therefore exogenous means are a necessity. Exogenous protection includes sun avoidance, use of photoprotective clothing and sufficient application of broad-spectrum sunscreens as presently the best way to protect the skin. However other strategies that may enhance currently used means of protection are being investigated. These are often based on the endogenous protective response to solar light such as compounds that stimulate pigmentation, antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants.

Conclusion: More research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of new alternatives to photoprotection such as use of DNA repair and antioxidant enzymes and plant polyphenols and to find an efficient way for their delivery to the skin. New approaches to the prevention of skin damage are important especially for specific groups of people such as (young) children, photosensitive people and patients on immunosuppressive therapy.

There is emerging evidence from both basic and clinical neuroscie

There is emerging evidence from both basic and clinical neurosciences

that cortical spreading depression and an epileptic focus may facilitate each other, although with a different degree of efficiency. This review address the long history which lead to the ‘migralepsy’ concept to the new emerging pathophysiological aspects, and clinical and electroencephalography evidences of ictal epileptic headache. Here, we review and discuss the common physiopathology mechanisms and the historical aspects underlying the link between headache and epilepsy. Either experimental or clinical measures are required to better understand this latter relationship: the development of animal models, molecular studies defining more precise genotype/phenotype correlations as well as multicenter clinical studies with revision

of clinical criteria for headache-/epilepsy-related disorders represent the start of future CCI-779 ic50 research. Therefore, the definition of ictal epileptic headache should be used to classify the rare events in which headache is the only manifestation of a seizure. Finally, using our recently published criteria, we will be able to clarify if ictal epileptic headache represents an underestimated phenomenon or not.”
“Experiments were conducted that were designed to study the influence of various process parameters on the properties of lyocell fabrics treated with NaOH solutions in a continuous process. The Alvocidib process parameters of interest were the fabric type (plain, twill, or sateen woven), alkali concentration, tension on the fabric, temperature, and duration of the treatment. In this article, we present the first set of results from these experiments PF-6463922 concentration and examine the effect of NaOH concentration, temperature, and tension in the continuous alkali treatments of plain woven lyocell fabrics. Alkali treatments caused fiber swelling in

the fabrics to extents governed by the alkali concentration and temperature of the treatment liquors. Fiber swelling caused fabric shrinkage, which resulted in changes to the fabric macroscopic structure and properties. Changes were observed in the flexural rigidity, water retention, crease recovery, strength, and abrasion resistance of the fabrics to extents governed predominantly by swelling-related changes to the fabric structure. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 3646-3655, 2009″
“Intravenous thrombolysis has been shown to improve outcome in patients with ischemic stroke if given within the first 3 hours. This benefit extends into a 4.5-hour time window when applied in a more selected patient population. Strokes from large-vessel intracranial occlusion carry high morbidity and respond poorly to intravenously administered thrombolytics.

Knowledge of common tick vectors

Knowledge of common tick vectors learn more in the United States and the infections they transmit will allow pediatricians to appropriately assess and manage patients with tick-borne diseases.”
“Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various diseases during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Newborns are more prone to oxidative stress than individuals later in life. During pregnancy, increased oxygen demand augments the rate of production of ROS and women, even during normal pregnancies, experience elevated oxidative stress compared with non-pregnant women.

ROS generation is also increased in the placenta during preeclampsia. Melatonin is a highly effective direct free-radical scavenger, indirect antioxidant, and cytoprotective agent in human pregnancy and it appears to be essential for successful pregnancy. Selleck LY2835219 This suggests a role for melatonin in human reproduction and in neonatal pathologies (asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, etc.). This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the role for melatonin in human pregnancy and in the newborn. Numerous studies agree that short-term melatonin therapy is highly effective in reducing complications during pregnancy and in the neonatal period. No significant toxicity or treatment-related side effects with long-term melatonin therapy in children and adults have been reported. Treatment

with melatonin might result in a wide range of health benefits, KPT-8602 nmr including improved quality of life and reduced healthcare costs.”
“Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and report the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy, a uterine sparing procedure to correct pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Hysterectomy at the time of POP surgery has yet to be proven to improve the durability of repair. Nevertheless, the leading indication for hysterectomy in postmenopausal women is POP. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of a consecutive case series of uterine sparing prolapse repair procedures

from 2005 to 2011. Fifteen women were identified. Procedures utilized a type I polypropylene mesh securing the posterior uterocervical junction to the sacral promontory. This was later modified to utilize a Y-shaped strip that was inserted through the broad ligaments to include the anterior uterocervical junction. Results: Objective success was defined as Baden Walker grade 0 uterine prolapse and subjective success was defined as no complaint of vaginal bulge or pressure. The mean age of women was 51.8 years (28-64 years). No intraoperative complications were noted. The mean operating time was 159.4 minutes (130-201 minutes) and mean estimated blood loss was 35mL (0-100mL). The mean length of stay was 1.6 days (1-4 days) and mean length of follow-up was 10.8 months. Uterine prolapse improved in all 15 patients.

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics [DOI: 10 1063/1 3149696]“

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3149696]“
“Some mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of bradykinin on glucose homeostasis and some studies reported that the BDKRB2 +9/-9 polymorphism was associated to the transcriptional activity of the receptor. In this scenario, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the BDKRB2 +9/-9 polymorphism with diabetes mellitus risk in the Brazilian general population. This study included 1,032 subjects of the general urban population. Anthropometrical, blood pressure, biochemical, and genotype analyses for the BDKRB2 +9/-9 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism were performed. Individuals

carrying +9/+9 or +9/-9 genotypes had higher glucose values (84.5 mg/dL versus 80.6 mg/dL, resp.) and higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (7.6% versus 3.6%, resp.)

compared to individuals find more carrying -9/-9, adjusting selleck products for age and gender. In addition, higher diabetes mellitus risk was associated to presence of the +9/+9 or +9/-9 genotypes (OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.09-4.19; P = 0.03). Our data suggest that the BDKRB2 +9/-9 polymorphism may act as a genetic modulator of glucose homeostasis. It was previously associated to insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, and insulin secretion, and, in this study, data suggest that the polymorphism may increase susceptibility to chronic metabolic conditions such as diabetes in the Brazilian population.”
“BACKGROUND: The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used to help diagnose tuberculosis (TB) in acutely ill hospitalised children.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential augmentative effect of

topical calcipotriol (a vitamin D analogue) or zinc on TST induration.

METHODS: Three TSTs were performed among 64 hospitalised children; each site was covered with topical aqueous cream (control), calcipotriol or zinc and assessed 24 and 48 h later by investigators blinded to all topical applications.

RESULTS: selleckchem TSTs were reactive in 15 (23.4%) children, of whom 13 (20.3%) were TST-positive. Topical calcipotriol and zinc induced TST positivity in two children with reactive but negative control TSTs. These treatments, however, did not significantly increase TST positivity rates. In children with reactive TSTs, the median 48 h induration diameter was not significantly different between the control, calcipotriol- or zinc-treated groups, which were respectively 12.0 (25%-75% IQR 5.0-18.0), 14.0 (25%-75% IQR 10.0 – 15.0) and 12.0 (25%-75% IQR 8.0 – 15.0) mm. Topical treatments did not induce TST reactivity or TST positivity in children with culture-confirmed TB disease (n=4), human immunodeficiency virus infection (n=18) or kwashiorkor (n=9).

CONCLUSIONS: Topical calcipotriol or zinc does not induce TST reactivity or significantly increase TST positivity rates in acutely ill hospitalised children.

New insights provided in this report are helpful for the comprehe

New insights provided in this report are helpful for the comprehension of NUE and NRE concepts in Arabidopsis as well as in crops and especially in Brassica napus.”

methacrylate) nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) in miniemulsion. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant applicable at higher temperatures was used for miniemulsion stabilization. Successful RATRP was carried out by using 4,4′-dinonyl-2,2′-bipyridine (dNbPy) as ligand. Monodispersed droplets and particles with sizes VX-680 Cell Cycle inhibitor in the range of 200 nm were revealed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Conversion and molecular weight study was carried out using gravimetry and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) respectively. By adding clay content, a decrease in the conversion and molecular weight and an increase in the PDI value of the nanocomposites are observed. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites in comparison with the neat copolymer is revealed CAL-101 concentration by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Increased Tg values by adding clay content was also obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the nanoconposite with 1 wt % of nanoclay loading, display monodispersed

spherical particles with sizes in the range of similar to 200 nm. SEM findings are more compiled with dynamic light scattering (DLS) results. Well-dispersed exfoliated clay layers in the polymer matrix of the nanocomposite with 1 wt % nanoclay loading is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Propionibacterium species rarely cause infective endocarditis. When identified in blood cultures, they may be inappropriately disregarded as skin flora contaminants. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation and

management of endocarditis due to Propionibacterium species. All cases of endocarditis due to Propionibacterium species that were treated at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA were retrospectively reviewed, and the English language medical literature was searched for all previously published reports. Seventy cases, which JIB-04 in vitro included eight from the Mayo Clinic, were identified (clinical details were available for only 58 cases). The median age of patients was 52 years, and 90% were males. In 79% of the cases, the infection involved prosthetic material (39 prosthetic valves, one left ventricular Teflon patch, one mitral valve ring, one pulmonary artery prosthetic graft, three pacemakers, and one defibrillator). Blood cultures were positive in 62% of cases. All 22 cases with negative blood cultures were microbiologically confirmed by either positive valve tissue cultures (n = 21) or molecular methods (n = 1).

Surimi gels containing 20, 30, 40, and 50%(w/w) king oyster mushr

Surimi gels containing 20, 30, 40, and 50%(w/w) king oyster mushroom were analyzed for color, theological properties, and sensory attributes. Texture profile analysis of fish paste added with MS-275 manufacturer king oyster mushroom paste showed significant decrease on hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess. Springiness Of Cuttlefish paste increased with the addition of king oyster mushroom paste. ne results of the sensory evaluation showed that cuttlefish paste added with 30, 40, and 50% king oyster mushroom had higher overall acceptability compared with that of the control. However, flavor, softness, chewiness, and overall quality tended to decrease in 50% king

oyster mushroom paste group. Therefore, this study Suggests that king oyster mushroom paste and cuttlefish were suitable for surimi gel production and could be effective in improving the nutritional properties

and functionality of surimi gel.”
“Ovarian reserve describes a woman’s reproductive potential and there are a variety of tests for this. This reflects the lack of a gold standard and the lack of a single test that provides sufficient accuracy. Ovarian biopsy has been proposed as a potential tool for assessing the ovarian reserve and therefore the ability or inability for a woman to bear a child with or without treatment. The literature assessing the diagnostic accuracy of ovarian biopsy as a test of ovarian reserve for predicting fertility

outcomes (live birth rate, ongoing pregnancy, Crenolanib in vivo clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy, embryos available, oocytes retrieved or cancelled cycles) GSK2118436 in vitro was systematically reviewed. There were no studies identified that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of ovarian biopsy for predicting fertility outcomes but a number of studies provided evidence that ovarian follicles are distributed unevenly and randomly throughout the ovarian cortex. This leads to sampling error when ovarian biopsy is used to sample the ovarian reserve. It is concluded that ovarian biopsy should not be used as a test of ovarian reserve. (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In humans converging evidence indicates that affective aspects of touch are signaled by low threshold mechanoreceptive C tactile (CT) afferents. Analyses of electrophysiological recordings, psychophysical studies in denervated subjects, and functional brain imaging, all indicate that CT primary afferents contribute to pleasant touch and provide an important sensory underpinning of social behavior. Considering both these pleasant and social aspects of gentle skin-to-skin contact, we have put forward a framework within which to consider CT afferent coding properties and pathways-the CT affective touch hypothesis. Recent evidence from studies in mice suggest that CTs, when activated, may have analgesic or anxiolytic effects.

It is necessary for children whose mother smoked during pregnancy

It is necessary for children whose mother smoked during pregnancy, especially in boys, to be careful with their diet and physical activity in order to prevent childhood obesity.”
“There is concern

that the traditional diet is a source of mercury exposure among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. Mercury exposure in utero and in early childhood presents a risk to neurodevelopment. The objectives of the present study were to assess the dietary mercury exposure from traditional food among Inuit children 3 to 5 years of age in Nunavut, and evaluate the association between estimated dietary mercury intake and body burden. A cross-sectional Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey was conducted GPCR Compound Library research buy in 2007 and 2008 which included assessment of dietary habits and children’s hair mercury (Hg) levels. Further, an Inuit Adult Health Survey was conducted in the same years which included assessment of dietary habits and whole blood mercury concentrations. Traditional food samples were collected during this study and previously from the Canadian Arctic. Daily mercury intake from traditional food was calculated.

Body mercury burden was determined using the hair mercury concentration. The geometric mean of children’s hair Hg was 0.66 mu g/g and varied by region. Nearly 25% of children had hair Hg concentrations equal to or higher this website than 2 mu g/g (WHO reference level). There was a significant correlation between mercury levels in children’s hair and that of the adults

in the same household. For children, beluga muktuk, narwhal muktuk, ringed seal liver, fish, caribou meat and ringed seal meat were the major dietary sources of mercury. These food items together accounted for over 95% of total daily dietary mercury intake. A positive linear regression relationship between children’s hair mercury levels and estimated dietary mercury intake was observed. Estimated intake Crenigacestat cell line in Baffin decreased by 30% compared to 20 years ago. Some traditional food items were significant sources of mercury to Inuit children in Nunavut. Although a reduction in the consumption of these diet items may be a way to reduce mercury intake, the nutritional, social and cultural benefits of traditional food and countervailing risks must be taken into account in risk mitigation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim To clarify perinatal outcomes of monoamniotic (MM) twin pregnancies. Material and Methods MM twins delivered in seven tertiary perinatal centers during the last decade were retrospectively evaluated. All pregnant women were scheduled to begin inpatient management at around 24 weeks of gestation and undergo a planned cesarean section beyond 32 weeks. Pregnancy outcomes, prevalence of fetal death and cord entanglement, perinatal mortality and neuromorbidity rate at discharge were examined.

Results: The relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and

Results: The relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)

was 95.4% and 4.6%, respectively. B-cell lymphomas accounted for 77.6% of all NHL, while T/natural killer (T/NK)-cell lymphomas accounted for 22.4%. The most frequent subtypes of NHL were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (42.7%), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (19.0%), NK/T-cell lymphoma (6.3%) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), unspecified (6.3%), in decreasing order. The relative frequency of HL was nodular sclerosis (47.4%), mixed cellularity (30.6%), and nodular lymphocyte predominant (12.1%) subtypes. Compared with a previous study in 1998, increase in gastric MZBCL and nodular sclerosis HL, and slight decrease of follicular lymphoma, PTCL, and NK/T-cell lymphoma were observed. Conclusions: Korea had lower rates of HL and follicular lymphoma, and higher rates of extranodal buy MLN2238 NHL, extranodal MZBCL, and NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type compared with Western countries. Changes in the relative frequency of lymphoma subtypes are likely ascribed to refined diagnostic criteria and a change in national health care policy.”
“Cells need click here a constant supply of precursors to

enable the production of macromolecules to sustain growth and survival. Unlike metazoans, unicellular eukaryotes depend exclusively on the extracellular medium for this supply. When environmental nutrients become depleted, selleck compound existing cytoplasmic components will be catabolized by (macro) autophagy in order to re-use building blocks and to support ATP production. In many cases, autophagy takes care of cellular housekeeping to sustain cellular viability. Autophagy encompasses a multitude of related and

often highly specific processes that are implicated in both biogenetic and catabolic processes. Recent data indicate that in some unicellular eukaryotes that undergo profound differentiation during their life cycle (e. g. kinetoplastid parasites and amoebes), autophagy is essential for the developmental change that allows the cell to adapt to a new host or form spores. This review summarizes the knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of autophagy as well as the cytoplasm-to-vacuole-targeting pathway, pexophagy, mitophagy, ER-phagy, ribophagy and piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus, all highly selective forms of autophagy that have first been uncovered in yeast species. Additionally, a detailed analysis will be presented on the state of knowledge on autophagy in non-yeast unicellular eukaryotes with emphasis on the role of this process in differentiation.”
“Fluorine-containing poly[bis-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentanol)(1.6) (4-hydroxybutaneoxy)(0.4) phosphazene] (OFHBP) was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Thermal transport through < 100 > and < 110 > rough Si nanowires is investigated using an atomistic quantum transport approach based on a modified Keating model and the wave function formalism. The thermal conductance, resistance, and conductivity are calculated for different

nanowire lengths and the root mean square of the rough surfaces. The simulation results show that thermal transport is diffusive in rough nanowires without surrounding oxide layers. Its degradation, as compared to ideal structures, cannot be attributed to phonon localization effects, but to the properties of this website the phonon band structure. Phonon bands with an almost flat dispersion cannot propagate through disordered structures due to the mode mismatch between adjacent unit cells.

(c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3644993]“
“Purpose: To evaluate postoperative bleeding and thromboembolic complications during dental extractions in anticoagulated patients, using 2 different protocols.

Patients and Methods: In total, 214 anticoagulated patients in need of simple PLX3397 dental extractions were randomized into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 109 patients on continuous oral anticoagulation Epacadostat therapy (OAT), with a mean international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.45 +/- 0.54. Local hemostasis in these patients was achieved with resorbable collagen sponges, without wound suturing. Group B consisted of 105 patients

on bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparin-calcium), with a mean INR of 1.26 +/- 0.11 on the day of the procedure. Neither local hemostatic agents nor suturing of the wound was used in these patients.

Results: Eight (7.34%) patients in group A and 5 (4.76%) patients in group B manifested postextractional bleeding, without statistical significance (chi(2), Yates’ = 0.253, P > .05). All cases of hemorrhage were mild and easily controlled using local hemostatic measures. None of the participants in either group experienced thromboembolic complications.

Conclusions: in patients receiving OAT with an INR <= 4.0, simple dental extractions can be performed safely without interruption or modification of OAT, using local hemostatic measures. Suturing of the wound should be reserved for cases with a greater extent of surgical trauma, and when primary hemostasis is insufficient. There is no need for bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin in patients undergoing minor dentoalveolar procedures, although this approach can be used in patients with major oral Surgical interventions.

4 degrees (+/- 13 1) at follow-up (P < 0 0001) Mean thoracic

4 degrees (+/- 13.1) at follow-up (P < 0.0001). Mean thoracic kyphosis was 1.1 degrees (+/- 12.7) before surgery and increased to 17.6 degrees (+/- 12.2) at follow-up (P < 0.0001). Significant preoperative correlations existed between kyphosis and lordosis (r = 0.772,

P < 0.0001) and between lordosis and sacral slope (r = 0.785, P < 0.0001). Postoperative lumbar lordosis is correlated to thoracic kyphosis increase (r = 0.620, P < 0.0001). Postoperative lumbar lordosis is correlated to sacral slope increase (r = 0.722, P < 0.0001).

Conclusion. Reciprocal relationship exists between lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in sagittal thoracic compensated LDK. Surgical restoration of lumbar lordosis for LDK brings about high level of statistical correlation to AG-881 mw thoracic kyphosis improvement. At

the same time, the reciprocal relationship is maintained.”
“Purpose of review

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a molecule that has gained much attention STA-9090 in the last couple of years as an important player in innate immune responses and modulating factor in several (auto) immune diseases. Furthermore, advancements have been made in identifying the diverse functions that HMGB1 can play in the body by studying its receptors, pathways and effects. This review will focus on the modulation of HMGB1 in animal models of (auto) immune diseases.

Recent findings

In different disease models like sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion and arthritis, HMGB1-blocking therapies have been tested and the disease course BAY 73-4506 was shown to be ameliorated.


These findings indicate that HMGB1 is an important mediator in innate immunity, inflammation and sterile injury. Furthermore, HMGB1 might be a new therapeutic target in inflammation and autoimmune diseases, which may be translated to the clinic.”

Although upper eyelid blepharoplasty is a common procedure, subtleties in surgical technique can affect cosmetic outcomes. Suture materials commonly used include polypropylene, monofilament nylon, fast-absorbing gut, and ethylcyanoacrylate (ECA) tissue adhesive.


To assess upper lid blepharoplasty scars in participants

whose incision had been closed with 6-0 polypropylene sutures, 6-0 fast-absorbing gut sutures, or ECA.


A randomized, split-eyelid, single-blind, prospective study of the short- (1 month) and intermediate-term (3 months) efficacy of polypropylene, fast-absorbing gut, and ECA on 36 consecutive upper lid blepharoplasties. Participants and a blinded physician evaluator evaluated cosmetic outcome 1 and 3 months after the procedure.


Three subgroups tested were ECA versus fast-absorbing gut, ECA versus polypropylene, and fast-absorbing gut versus polypropylene. At 1 month, ECA was superior to fast-absorbing gut (p=.03) and had a marginally better outcome than polypropylene (p=.25), and polypropylene had an equivalent outcome to fast-absorbing gut (p=.46).