In the study group, 11% (4) patients are alive with recurrent disease and 6% selleck products (2) died of the disease. Histologic diagnosis of recurrences was available in 5 cases and showed low-grade serous carcinoma. Two cases recurred exclusively in the lymph nodes. Although the study group had it higher proportion of patients with disease recurrence and death disease, when the two groups were compared by looking only at FIGO stage III cases, LNI did not have it statistically
significant impact oil disease-free survival (P = 0.09) or the overall survival (P = 0.40). There was no relationship between the greatest linear dimension of LNI or the pattern of LNI and disease recurrence. In summary, in cases of OSLMP, LNI is associated with a higher rate of invasive and noninvasive implants, but is not an independent predictor of disease-free survival or overall survival. Women under 40 years of age and with peritoneal implants may be at particular
risk for LNI. Lymphadenectomy upstages a significant proportion of patients with LNI, highlighting the need for lymph node sampling in all OSLMP cases. Grossly unremarkable lymph nodes are not at a decreased risk FK228 chemical structure of LNI. The pattern and the greatest linear dimension of LNI foci were not shown to have prognostic significance.”
“Iron acquisition is a vital process for most pathogenic bacteria, as iron is a limiting nutrient during infection. Staphylococcus aureus, an increasingly important pathogen, acquires iron from host haem via elaboration of the iron-regulated surface determinant system (Isd). IsdG and IsdI are haem oxygenases that have been proposed to degrade exogenous haem in the bacterial cytoplasm as a mechanism to liberate free iron for use as a nutrient source. Herein, we report that IsdG and IsdI are both important for S. aureus growth on haemin as a sole iron source and are necessary for full S. aureus pathogenesis. Investigations into the regulation of these enzymes revealed that IsdG and IsdI are differentially regulated by iron and haem through both
transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Additionally, IsdI was found to be expressed in infected tissues at the sites of abscess formation, suggesting that abscesses are iron-starved microenvironments inside the host. These findings suggest that ISRIB S. aureus differentially regulates IsdG and IsdI in response to alterations in iron and haem availability during infection.”
“From only an a priori knowledge of the optical parameters of a laser beam, the delivery system together with a substrate’s material properties, a ray-tracing model capable of predicting the 3-D topology of micro/nanostructures machined by pulsed laser ablation has been developed. The model includes secondary illumination effects produced by the microstructure created by successive pulses (wall reflections, refraction, wave guiding, shadowing, etc.) as well as the complete optical properties of the beam delivery system.
Better understanding of these mechanisms could provide insight to development find more of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes as well as refinement of surgical techniques.”
Script concordance tests (SCTs) can be used to assess clinical reasoning, especially in situations of uncertainty, by comparing the responses of examinees with those of emergency physicians. The examinee’s answers are scored based on the level of agreement with responses provided by a panel of experts. Emergency physicians are frequently uncertain in the interpretation of ECGs. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate an SCT combined with an ECG. Methods An SCT-ECG was developed. The test was administered to medical students, residents and emergency physicians. Scoring was based
on data from a panel of 12 emergency physicians. The statistical analyses assessed the internal reliability of the SCT (Cronbach’s alpha) and its ability to discriminate between the different groups (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test). Results The SCT-ECG was administered to 21 medical see more students, 19 residents and 12 emergency physicians. The internal reliability was satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha=0.80). Statistically significant differences were found between the groups (F-0.271=21.07; p smaller than 0.0001). Moreover, significant differences (post hoc test) were detected between students and residents (p smaller than 0.001),
students and experts (p smaller than 0.001), and residents Blasticidin S cell line and experts (p=0.017). Conclusions This SCT-ECG is a valid tool to assess clinical reasoning in a context of uncertainty due to its high internal reliability and its ability to discriminate between different levels of expertise.”
“Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates transcriptional transactivation. The nucleocapsid protein NC of HIV-1 is a component of virion and plays a key role in genome packaging. Herein, we have demonstrated the interaction between NC and Tat by means of a yeast two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down analysis, co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization analysis. We observed that the level of Tat was significantly reduced in the presence of NC. But NC did not affect mRNA expression level of Tat. The level of Tat in the presence of NC was increased by treating cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. The ubiquitination state of Tat was not seen to increase in the presence of NC, suggesting the proteasomal degradation was independent of ubiquitination. Lowered level of Tat in the presence of NC led to a decrease in Tat-mediated transcriptional transactivation.
In this study, we induced decrease in stiffness by using a DNA-crosslinked hydrogel, and subjected
rat spinal cord neurons to such dynamic stiffness. The neurons respond to the dynamic cues as evidenced by the primary neurite structure, and the response from each neurite property (e. g., axonal length and primary dendrite number) is consistent with the behavior on static gels of same substrate rigidity, with one exception of mean primary dendrite length. The results on cell population distribution confirm the neuronal responses to the dynamic stiffness. Quantification on the focal adhesion kinase expression in the neuronal cell body on dynamic gels suggests that neurons also modify adhesion in coping with the dynamic stiffnesses. The results reported here extend the neuronal mechanosensing capability to dynamic stiffness of extracellular matrix, and give rise to a novel AZD7762 way of engineering
neurite outgrowth in time dimension.”
“Depression and Alzheimer’s disease ( AD) are among the most prevalent mental disorders in the elderly. Strong evidence suggests that vascular diseases and vascular risk factors are associated with both depression and AD, and could partially explain the coexistence or the concurrent onset of these two diseases. In particular, endothelial dysfunction appears to play a critical role in the neurobiology of depression and amyloid deposition in the brains of patients with AD. Antidepressants have a significant impact on endothelial function. SB203580 cost In addition, several drugs used to treat vascular disease or vascular risk factors, such as calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins, have, to variable extents, significant clinical effects on depressive symptomatology or amyloid deposition
in AD. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical data suggest that the nitric oxide and VEGF signaling pathways may be of value for the treatment of depression and AD.”
“Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 in vitro (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 A degrees C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III.
However, little is known about its role in the Chinese population. This study sought to assess the prevalence of NAFLD and its association with hypoadiponectinaemia in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.\n\nMaterial
and methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in an urban Shanghai sample of 2201 participants age 50 years to 83 years (973 men, 1228 women). Hepatic ultrasonographic examination was performed for all participants. Serum www.selleckchem.com/products/bindarit.html adiponectin concentrations were measured by ELISA methods.\n\nResults: The prevalence of NAFLD was 19.8% (16.0% in men, 22.8% in women). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in female than in male subjects (p < 0.001). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in NAFLD subjects than those in control subjects (p < 0.001). The prevalence of NAFLD progressively increased with declining adiponectin levels (p(for) (trend) < 0.001). The participants in the lowest adiponectin quartile had a significantly increased risk for acquiring NAFLD (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.72-3.15) after adjustment for potential confounders.\n\nConclusions:
Population-based screening suggests that NAFLD is highly prevalent in middle-aged and elderly people in Shanghai, particularly among women. Serum adiponectin level is negatively associated with NAFLD independently of potential cofounders, indicating that hypoadiponectinaemia may contribute to the development of NAFLD.”
“Objectives: To provide an overview of the development
www.selleckchem.com/products/sc79.html of health technology assessment (HTA) in Germany since the 1990s.\n\nMethods: Analysis of key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and personal experiences.\n\nResults: Health technology assessment (HTA) entered the political agenda in Germany only in the mid-1990s, basically as the result of a top-down approach toward more efficiency in health AZD5153 care, but with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement. Accordingly, HTA became part of several healthcare reform laws since 1997, which led to the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in 2004. This tandem construction aims at using evidence in decision-making processes for coverage and other decisions.\n\nConclusions: These developments have led to a considerable impact of HTA in Germany. In addition, a broad spectrum of activities at universities and in other organizations, such as the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), can be observed that contribute to both teaching and research in HTA. German researchers in the field of HTA are actively involved in international projects, such as EUNetHTA, and contribute to scientific conferences and journals.”
“Acceptable fertility using cryopreserved ram sperm is currently only achieved using laparoscopic intrauterine insemination.
To calculate the torque of the head around the implant only the force and the leverarm is needed (N [Nm] = F [N] * x [m]). The force F is a product of the mass M [kg] multiplied by the acceleration g [m/s(2)]. The leverarm is the distance between the center of the head of femur and the implant center on a horizontal line.\n\nResults: Using 50% of 75 kg body weight a torque of 0.37Nm for the 1 mm decentralized position and 1.1Nm for the 3 mm decentralized position of the implant was calculated. At 250% BW, appropriate to a normal step, torques of 1.8Nm (1 mm) and 5.5Nm (3 mm) have been calculated. Comparing of the experimental and theoretical results shows that both screws fail in the
same magnitude as torques occur in a more than 3 mm de-central positioned implant.\n\nConclusion: We conclude the center-center see more position in the head of femur of any kind of lag screw or blade is to be achieved to minimize rotation of the femoral head and to prevent further mechanical complications.”
“Background: Cardiac rehabilitation in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) is a component of secondary prevention that has an established role in the current guidelines.\n\nAim: To determine the effect of physical training on exercise capacity parameters CH5183284 in vivo determined
on the basis of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients after MI. We also evaluated the relationship between the number of training sessions and Akt activation exercise capacity.\n\nMethods: We prospectively evaluated 52 patients after MI who underwent percutaneous
coronary intervention of the infarct-related artery. At the start of the training, patients had no symptoms of heart failure and coronary artery disease. Electrocardiographic exercise test was performed 4 to 6 weeks after MI, followed by CPET in patients with a negative stress test. After determination of the initial exercise capacity, patients underwent 12 training sessions on a cycle ergometer with a workload determined on the basis of anaerobic threshold or heart rate reserve. After 12 training sessions, CPET was performed, followed by another 12 training sessions and a follow-up CPET.\n\nResults: All patients showed a significant increase in exercise capacity parameters: energy expenditure during CPET increased from 9.39 to 11.79 METs, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak) increased from 32.32 to 39.25 mL/kg/min (p < 0.001), and oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold increased from 18.34 to 24.65 mL/kg min (p < 0.001). The initial 12 training sessions resulted in a statistically significant increase in VO(2)peak from 32.32 to 36.75 mL/kg/min (p = 0.003), while subsequent 12 training sessions were related with an insignificant increase in VO(2)peak from 36.75 to 39.25 mL/kg/min (p = 0.065).\n\nConclusions: Regular physical activity improves exercise capacity as measured by CPET.
1 +/- 1.5 cm H(2)O after TT, and the mean PE was 15.3 +/- 1.8 cm H(2)O/L. TT significantly increased the mean ratio of PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen
(FiO(2)) from 243.2 +/- 19.9 to 336.0 +/- 17.8 mm Hg (P < 0.0001). The changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio after TT were inversely correlated with PE (r = -0.803, P < 0.0001). The 14 patients (54%) with normal PE (< 14.5 cm H(2)O/L) had significantly greater increases in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio after TT than did the 12 patients with abnormal PE (> 14.5 cm H(2)O/L).\n\nConclusions:\n\nMeasurement of PE during TT may be valuable for predicting improvement in oxygenation in ventilated patients with heart failure and pleural effusions. Patients with lower PE showed greater improvement in oxygenation after TT.”
“Yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (y-cyt-c) has five extra residues at N-terminus in comparison to the horse cytochrome c. These residues are numbered as -5 to -1. Here, these extra residues are sequentially removed find more from y-cyt-c to establish their role in folding and stability of the protein. We performed urea-induced denaturation of wild-type (WT) y-cyt-c
and its deletants. Denaturation was followed by observing change in Delta epsilon(405) (probe for measuring change in the heme environment within the protein), [theta](405) (probe for measuring the change in Phe82 and Met80 axial bonding), [theta](222) (probe for measuring change in secondary structure) and [theta](416) (probe for measuring change in the heme-methionine environment). The urea-induced selleck inhibitor reversible denaturation curves were used to estimate Delta [GRAPHICS] , the value of Gibbs free energy change (Delta G(D)) in the absence BEZ235 of urea; C-m, the midpoint of the
denaturation curve, i.e. molar urea concentration ([urea]) at which Delta G(D)=0; and m, the slope (= partial differential Delta G(D)/ partial differential [urea]). Our in vitro results clearly show that except Delta(-5/-4) all deletants are less stable than WT protein. Coincidence of normalized transition curves of all physical properties suggests that unfolding/refolding of WT protein and its deletants is a two-state process. To confirm our in vitro observations, we performed 40ns MD simulation of both WT y-cyt-c and its deletants. MD simulation results clearly show that extra N-terminal residues play a role in stability but not in folding of the protein.”
“P>This study compared the effect of isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia on postoperative hepatocellular injury, liver function and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in 60 cirrhotic patients, after partial hepatectomy using Pringle’s manoeuvre. In the isoflurane group postoperatively, both mean (SD) aspartate aminotransferase (day 1: 197 (123) U.l-1 vs 261 (143) U.l-1; p = 0.01; day 3: 465 (258) U.l-1 vs 578 (311) U.l-1; p = 0.02) and alanine aminotransferase (day 1: 575 (312) U.l-1 vs 714 (434) U.l-1; p = 0.04 and day 3: 776 (443) U.l-1 vs 898 (746) U.l-1; p = 0.
4, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.8, P = 0.337), but there was a strong association with overall survival among estrogen receptor (ER) positive patients (HR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.7, P = 0.062) and hormone-treated patients (HR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0, P = 0.045). The Active subtype of breast microenvironment is correlated with TWIST-overexpression signatures and shares features of claudin-low breast cancers. The Active subtype was also associated with expression of TGF-b induced fibroblast activation signatures, but there was no significant association between Active/Inactive
microenvironment and desmoid type fibrosis or estrogen response gene expression signatures. Consistent with the RNA expression profiles, Active cancer-adjacent tissues exhibited higher density of TWIST nuclear staining, predominantly 3-MA purchase in epithelium, and no evidence of increased fibrosis.\n\nConclusions: These results document the presence of two distinct subtypes of microenvironment, with Active versus Inactive cancer-adjacent extratumoral microenvironment influencing the aggressiveness and outcome of ER-positive human breast cancers.”
“Highly concentrated electrolytes containing
carbonate solvents with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) have been investigated to determine the influence of eliminating bulk solvent (i.e., uncoordinated to a Li+ cation) on electrolyte properties. The phase behavior of ethylene carbonate (EC)-LiTFSI mixtures indicates that two crystalline solvates Selleckchem PF-00299804 form-(EC)(3):LiTFSI and (EC)(1):LiTFSI. Crystal structures for these were determined to obtain insight into the ion and solvent coordination. Between these compositions, however, a crystallinity gap exists. A Raman spectroscopic analysis of the EC solvent bands for the 3-1 and 2-1 EC-LiTFSI liquid electrolytes indicates that similar to 86 and 95%, respectively, of the solvent is coordinated to the Li+ cations. This extensive coordination results in significantly improved anodic oxidation and thermal stabilities as compared with more dilute (i.e., 1 M) electrolytes. LY3023414 inhibitor Further,
while dilute EC-LiTFSI electrolytes extensively corrode the Al current collector at high potential, the concentrated electrolytes do not. A new mechanism for electrolyte corrosion of Al in Li-ion batteries is proposed to explain this. Although the ionic conductivity of concentrated EC-LiTFSI electrolytes is somewhat low relative to the current state-of-the-art electrolyte formulations used in commercial Li-ion batteries, using an EC-diethyl carbonate (DEC) mixed solvent instead of pure EC markedly improves the conductivity.”
“Our study aimed at evaluating the relation, if any, between obesity and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We pooled and analyzed data from 16 studies accounting for approximately 7500 cases of DLBCL.
We identified 74 sequences with putative homology to proteins associated with insect innate immunity. Sixteen sequences had significant similarity to proteins associated with small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways (RNA interference; RNAi), including the antiviral pathway (short interfering
RNA-mediated pathway). Our EST collection provides new sequence resources for characterizing gene functions 17DMAG order in F. occidentalis and other thrips species with regards to vital biological processes, studying the mechanism of interactions with the viruses harboured and transmitted by the vector, and identifying new insect gene-centred targets for plant disease and insect control.”
“BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that is classified as an immune-mediated inflammatory GSK461364 concentration disease. In managed care, patients with MS can be managed through care coordination that engages an interprofessional approach to a comprehensive spectrum of preventive, medical, rehabilitative, cognitive, and long-term health care services. In addition, the management paradigm for
MS is currently in a stage of rapid evolution, with a number of new agents, including more oral drugs, expected to become available in the near future. Pharmacy and therapeutic committees
may soon be faced with evaluating a hierarchy of new scientific data to differentiate the safety and efficacy of these new agents. Decisions will need to be made regarding the utility of these potential new agents among existing therapies with longer-term safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature. For those MS patients managed under Medicaid, formulary and medication management decisions may be further impacted by psychosocial, cultural, educational, attitudinal, and/or economic factors that may be unique to the Medicaid population. The need to maximize immediate and long-term resource utilization is usually an important consideration when managing a Medicaid population. There is also an increasing selleck products focus on quality measures and quality outcomes by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Many managed care professionals can be involved in establishing quality measures and quality improvement processes to effectively appropriate and manage the resources required for Medicaid patients with MS. As a result, medication and medical management of this special population can involve a comprehensive approach by managed care professionals. For purposes of this article, the term “special populations” applies to patients with MS who are managed under Medicaid plans.
The smallest difference eliciting a MMN located the discrimination threshold between 16% and 33% of the standard, without attentional confound. Being observed in several species, MMN can be used to decipher both the phylogenetic and ontogenetic
evolution of time discrimination, without attentional confound.”
“Objective: To determine whether a low-GCT result is predictive of low birthweight and to identify the lower GCT threshold for prediction of fetal growth AZD8931 restriction.\n\nMethods: A retrospective cohort study of 12 899 women who underwent a GCT (24-28 weeks). Women with a low-GCT result (<10th percentile (70 mg/dL) were compared to women with normal-GCT result (70-140 mg/dL). ROC analysis was used to determine the optimal lower GCT threshold for the prediction of growth restriction.\n\nResults: Women in the low GCT had significant lower rates of cesarean delivery
(18.7% versus 22.5%), shoulder dystocia (0.0% versus 0.3%), mean birthweight (3096 +/- 576 versus 3163 +/- 545) and birthweight percentile (49.1 +/- 27.0 versus 53.1 +/- 26.7) and significant higher rates of birthweight <2500 g (11.3% versus 8.5%), below the 10th percentile (8.3% versus 6.5%) and www.selleckchem.com/products/rocilinostat-acy-1215.html 3rd percentile (2.3% versus 1.4%). Low GCT was independently associated with an increased risk for birthweight 52500 g (OR = 1.6, 1.2-2.0), birthweight <10th percentile (OR = 1.3, 1.1-1.6), birthweight <3rd percentile (OR 1.7, 1.2-2.5) and neonatal hypoglycemia (OR = 1.4, 1.02-2.0).
The optimal GCT threshold for the prediction of birthweight <10th percentile was 88.5 mg/dL (sensitivity 48.5%, specificity 58.1%).\n\nConclusion: Low-GCT result is independently associated with low birthweight and can be used in combination with additional factors for the prediction of fetal growth restriction.”
“Objective: To describe a technique for surgical correction of a prominent nasolabial fold (NLF) and use of the excised fold to assess the histology and localization of injected hyaluronic acid HM781-36B ic50 (HA) fillers.\n\nMethods: Surgical correction was achieved by direct excision of the NLF, followed by advancement of the nasolabial fat compartment into the nasolabial crease. Excised tissue samples were injected with HA fillers (Restylane (R), Perlane (R), or layered Restylane (R)/Perlane (R)), sectioned, and treated with histological stains.\n\nResults: Surgical correction of NLF resulted in highly satisfactory results. HA localized primarily in the lower reticular dermis and subcutis of the excised NLF. Localization appeared similar regardless of the HA product employed.\n\nConclusion: Direct excision of the NLF with advancement of the nasolabial fat compartment is a successful treatment for patients with deep NLF. HA injected into the excised tissue localized near the site of injection, emphasizing the importance of proper placement of HA fillers during soft tissue augmentation.
The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids.\n\nConclusions: Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5′TE and 3′TE functional markers produce higher levels of provitamin A. click here Such maize lines can be used
as donor parents to speed up the development of provitamin A biofortified tropical maize varieties adapted to growing conditions and consumer preferences, providing a route towards mitigation of vitamin A malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa.”
oxygen uptake VO(2max) has an important place in the assessment of cardiopulmonary fitness. Currently there is insufficient normative data for Iranian adolescents. With this preliminary study, we aimed to set up the first normative data for our laboratory which may also serve as a basis for future large population-based studies in Iran.\n\nMaterial and methods: We assessed the peak oxygen consumption of 95 healthy Iranian adolescents, aged 13-17 years, and examined the cardiopulmonary responses to exercise test in relation to their age, sex and body size. Between June and September 2007, the level of aerobic capacity was evaluated by maximal oxygen consumption VO(2max)), which was calculated Vorinostat using the exercise test on a bicycle ergometer.\n\nResults: During a four-month period, the cardiopulmonary exercise test was conducted on a population-based sample of 95 adolescents (44 boys and 51 girls). The mean age and body mass index were 15.59 +/- 1.85 years and 23.46 +/- 5.05 kg/m(2), respectively. The VO(2max) of boys was significantly higher in boys than in girls (16.71 +/- 8.72/12.48 +/- 6.25 ml/kg/min respectively, p = 0.001).\n\nConclusions: The current study presents normal data for a small representative sample of healthy Iranian adolescents. VO(2max) in our study was in the poor to average range when compared to the standard values of other populations. This information should prompt policy makers and medical
educators to address this problem, and to consider promoting exercise and integrating physical fitness into the school Alisertib in vivo curriculum.”
“Numerous members of the Brassicaceae possess non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs), which function as Chl scavengers during cell disruption caused by wounding, pest/pathogen attacks, and/or environmental stress. Class II WSCPs have two extension peptides, one at the N-terminus and one at the C-terminus. The N-terminal peptide acts as a signal peptide, targeting the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum body, a unique defensive organelle found only in the Brassicaceae. However, the physiological and biochemical functions of the C-terminal extension peptide had not been characterized previously.