Patients with health care proxies who have an understanding of th

Patients with health care proxies who have an understanding of the prognosis and clinical course are likely to receive less aggressive care near the end of life.”
“Objectives The

aim of this study was to determine whether false lumen size predicts in-hospital complications for acute type B aortic dissection. Background The incidence of complications developing in patients with acute type B aortic dissection has been high. However, methods for recognizing high-risk patients have not been well-studied. We used quantitative analysis by computed tomography (CT) to predict the occurrence of in-hospital complications.\n\nMethods Fifty-five consecutive patients with acute type B aortic dissection documented by CT imaging were analyzed. They were divided into groups, with and without in-hospital complications, and compared regarding maximal aortic diameter (MAD), maximal false lumen area (MFLA), minimal true lumen area (MTLA), branch-vessel Fer-1 involvement (BVI), and longitudinal length (LL) of aortic dissection. Results There were 31 patients with a stable course (group

1) and 24 patients 5-Fluoracil who developed complications (group 2). The MFLA of group 2 was significantly larger than that of group 1 (group 1 vs. group 2 = 577.7 +/- 273.2 mm(2) vs. 1,899.3 +/- 1,642.4 mm(2), p < 0.001). The BVI number was also higher in group 2 (group 1 vs. group 2 = 1.0 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.3 +/- 2.0, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only MFLA and BVI number were independent predictors of in-hospital complications. Patients with initial MFLA >= 922 mm(2) or BVI number >= 2 showed a significantly higher incidence of in-hospital complications than the other patients (p < 0.001).\n\nConclusions A large MFLA and a higher BVI number are powerful predictors of in-hospital complications after acute type B aortic dissection.”
“Background: The ICH E7 guideline intends to improve the knowledge about medicines in geriatric patients. As

a legislative document, it might not reflect the needs of healthcare professionals. This study investigated what information healthcare professionals, regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical industries consider selleck products necessary for rational drug prescribing to older individuals.\n\nMethods and Findings: A 29-item-questionnaire was composed, considering the representation in trials, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and convenience of use in older individuals, with space for additions. Forty-three European professionals with an interest in medication for older individuals were included. In order to investigate their relevance, five items were included in a second questionnaire, with 11 control items. Median scores, differences between clinical and non-clinical respondents and response consistency were analysed. Consistency was present in 10 control items. Therefore, all items of the first questionnaire and the five additional items were analysed.

(C) 2015 Published

by Elsevier Ltd “

(C) 2015 Published

by Elsevier Ltd.”
“PURPOSE. To determine the temporal and spatial expression of Pitx2, a bicoid-like homeobox transcription factor, during postnatal development of mouse extraocular muscle and to evaluate its role in the growth and phenotypic maintenance of postnatal extraocular muscle.\n\nMETHODS. Mouse extraocular muscles of different ages were examined for the expression of Pitx2 by RT-PCR, q-PCR, and immunostaining. A conditional mutant mouse strain, in which Pitx2 function is inactivated at postnatal day (P)0, was generated with a Cre-loxP strategy. Histology, immunostaining, real-time PCR, in vitro muscle contractility, and in vivo ocular motility were used to study the effect of Pitx2 Danusertib chemical structure depletion on extraocular muscle.\n\nRESULTS.

All three Pitx2 isoforms were expressed by extraocular muscle and at higher levels than in other striated muscles. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of Pitx2 mainly in extraocular muscle myonuclei. However, no obvious expression patterns were observed in terms of anatomic region (orbital versus global layer), innervation zone, or muscle fiber types. The mutant extraocular muscle had no obvious pathology but had altered muscle fiber sizes. Expression levels of myosin isoforms Myh1, Myh6, Myh7, and Myh13 were reduced, whereas Myh2, Myh3, Myh4, and Myh8 were not affected by postnatal loss of Pitx2.

BMS-777607 mw In vitro, Pitx2 loss made the extraocular muscles stronger, faster, and more fatigable. Eye movement recordings found saccades to have a lower peak velocity.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Pitx2 is important in maintaining the mature extraocular muscle phenotype and regulating the expression of critical contractile proteins. Modulation of Pitx2 expression can influence extraocular muscle function with long-term therapeutic Copanlisib clinical trial implications. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009; 50: 4531-4541) DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-2950″
“Besides numerous other factors, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is involved in fracture healing and bone remodeling. FGF23 is a phosphatonin produced by osteoblastic cells, which signals via FGFR1, thereby exerting effects in bone and kidney. We analyzed if serum FGF23 levels might be an indicator to predict fracture healing and union. FGF23 (C-Term) was elevated on day 3 postoperatively in 55 patients sustaining an exchange of total hip implants due to aseptic loosening. A prospective study of 40 patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty also showed elevated FGF23 (C-Term) but no change in FGF23 (intact) levels on days 1, 4, and 10 postoperatively. Serum phosphate and phosphate clearance stayed within normal ranges. FGF23 mRNA expression in ovine callus was compared between a standard and delayed course of osteotomy healing.

The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level vo

The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level voice representations indicates that adaptation is not

confined to vision but is a ubiquitous mechanism in the perception of nonlinguistic social information from both faces and voices.”
“The presence of low pKa N-hydroxylamines is beneficial in peptide chemistry as they reduce some base-mediated side reactions. Here we evaluated the applicability and buffering capacity of Ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyimino) acetate (Oxyma) in the prevention of aspartimide/piperidide formation and Pro-based overcoupling and compared it with the performance of HOBt and HOAt. In addition, the compatibility of these additives with the highly acid-labile 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin is examined. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept IWR-1-endo molecular weight Sci) 98: 8997, 2012.”
“A series of 2-(3-aminopiperidine)-benzimidazoles were identified as selective H-1-antihistamines for evaluation as potential sedative hypnotics. Representative compounds showed improved hERG selectivity over a previously identified 2-aminobenzimidazole series. While hERG activity could be modulated via manipulation of the benzimidazole N1 substituent, this approach led

to a reduction in CNS exposure for the more selective compounds. One example, 9q, retained a suitable selectivity profile with CNS exposure equivalent to known centrally active H-1-antihistamines. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a new real time PCR-based method for quantitative detection of topoisomerase II alpha Staurosporine purchase (TOP2A) aberrations and to evaluate its clinical utility in breast CDK activity cancer.\n\nDesign and methods: The method applied dually labelled hydrolysis probes and Pfaffl quantification method. The study group consisted of 83 consecutive breast cancer patients.\n\nResults: In the examined tumour samples median TOP2A gene dosage was 1.08 (range 0.34-7.55). TOP2A amplifications were found in 12 tumours (14.5%), no deletion was detected. Statistically significant positive correlation of

TOP2A gene dosage with nodal status, tumour grade, and HER2 protein status was found. TOP2A status also correlated with disease free survival.\n\nConclusions: The newly developed real time PCR assay showed to be fast and easy to perform. Determined by the method TOP2A gene dosage was shown to be a potent prognostic factor in breast cancer. (c) 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The evolutionary rate of a protein is a basic measure of evolution at the molecular level. Previous studies have shown that genes expressed in the brain have significantly lower evolutionary rates than those expressed in somatic tissues.\n\nResults: We study the evolutionary rates of genes expressed in 21 different human brain regions.

Functionally competent CD8(+) T cells specific against tumor anti

Functionally competent CD8(+) T cells specific against tumor antigens (e.g. Her2/neu and MAGEA3) as well as against viral antigens have been recently generated from cord blood mononuclear AZD7762 cell line cells suggesting that cord blood can be a source of “young” anti-tumor T cells for adoptive

cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, cord blood can give rise to antigen non-specific effector cells including NK cells and dendritic cells. Finally, umbilical cord blood anti-tumor specific T cell clones are unlikely to have participated in tumor immunoediting, making them more efficient than host T cells in eradicating tumor cells. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Deconvolution of the role of off-cycle species from the desired catalytic cycle leads to an optimized protocol for the prolinate-catalyzed amination of aldehydes. The scope of complex reaction networks will be greatly broadened by understanding ancillary rate processes that influence the productive catalytic pathway.”
“Background: Nucleoli are composed of possibly several thousand different proteins and represent the most conspicuous compartments in the nucleus; they play a crucial role in the Vactosertib in vivo proper execution of many cellular processes. As such, nucleoli carry out ribosome biogenesis and sequester

or associate with key molecules that regulate cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, apoptosis and the stress response. Nucleoli are dynamic compartments that are characterized by a constant flux of macromolecules. Given the complex buy QNZ and dynamic composition of the nucleolar proteome, it is challenging

to link modifications in nucleolar composition to downstream effects.\n\nResults: In this contribution, we present quantitative immunofluorescence methods that rely on computer-based image analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques by monitoring the dynamic association of proteins and RNA with nucleoli under different physiological conditions. Thus, the protocols described by us were employed to study stress-dependent changes in the nucleolar concentration of endogenous and GFP-tagged proteins. Furthermore, our methods were applied to measure de novo RNA synthesis that is associated with nucleoli. We show that the techniques described here can be easily combined with automated high throughput screening (HTS) platforms, making it possible to obtain large data sets and analyze many of the biological processes that are located in nucleoli.\n\nConclusions: Our protocols set the stage to analyze in a quantitative fashion the kinetics of shuttling nucleolar proteins, both at the single cell level as well as for a large number of cells. Moreover, the procedures described here are compatible with high throughput image acquisition and analysis using HTS automated platforms, thereby providing the basis to quantify nucleolar components and activities for numerous samples and experimental conditions.

Stable isotope analysis proved very useful to

assess inte

Stable isotope analysis proved very useful to

assess intersexual niche partitioning in rare species living in rugged terrains where it is logistically difficult to rely on direct approaches (i.e. direct observation, capture and radio-tracking).”
“Background and purposeIschaemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk of early recurrent stroke (RS). However, antithrombotics commenced at the acute stage may exacerbate haemorrhagic transformation, provoking symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH). The relevance of antithrombotics on the patterns and outcome of the cohort was investigated. VX-689 inhibitor MethodsA non-randomized cohort analysis was conducted using data obtained from VISTA (Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive). The associations of antithrombotics with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) outcome and the occurrence of RS and SICH (each as a combined end-point of fatal and non-fatal events) at 90days for post-stroke patients with AF were described. Dichotomized outcomes were also considered as a secondary end-point (i.e. mortality and good MCC 950 outcome measure at 90days). ResultsIn all, 1644 patients were identified; 1462 (89%) received

antithrombotics, 157 (10%) had RS and 50 (3%) sustained SICH by day 90. Combined antithrombotic therapy (i.e. anticoagulants and antiplatelets), 782 (48%), was associated with favourable outcome on ordinal mRS and a significantly lower risk of RS, SICH and mortality by day 90, compared with the no antithrombotics group. The relative risk of RS and SICH appeared highest in the first 2days post-stroke before attenuating to become constant over time. ConclusionsThe risks and benefits of antithrombotics in recent stroke patients with AF appear to track together. Early introduction of anticoagulants (2-3days post-stroke), and to a lesser extent antiplatelet agents, was associated

with substantially fewer RS events over the following weeks but with no excess risk of SICH. More evidence is required to guide clinicians on this issue.”
“Background: Automated hematological analyzers PFTα cost have contributed to more precise and faster results. They also make it possible to measure several blood cell parameters automatically. Among the parameters provided, platelet indices are probably the most ignored by clinical laboratories due to the difficulty of standardization, as well as being affected by a range of methodological problems. It has been suggested that each laboratory determines its own reference intervals with the equipment used.\n\nMethods: Our goal was to determine the reference range of platelet distribution width (PDW) in venous blood samples from 231 patients using the Pentra 120 ABX hematology analyzer.\n\nResults: The PDW median was 13.3%, with a reference range of 10.0%-17.

Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and

Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents. The child questionnaire included measures of vegetable consumption and child cognitions related to vegetable consumption (i.e. attitudes, social

influence, self-efficacy and intention). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding practices adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices INCB28060 research buy Questionnaire. Stepwise regressions were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of child cognitions on the associations between parental feeding practices and child vegetable consumption. Our results suggested a mediating effect of child self-efficacy on the association between parental restrictive behavior and child vegetable consumption. Other potential mediating effects were not supported in this study. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Salidroside is a bioactive compound mainly distributed in Rhodiola L (Crassulaceae). It has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine. In this paper, three impurities were found during the analysis of salidroside bulk drug. The enrichment of impurities was carried out by ODS column selleck products chromatography,

using methanol-water (13:87, v/v) as eluent and the purification of impurities was achieved by semi-preparative HPLC, using methanol-water (11:89, v/v) as mobile phase, respectively. Three impurities were characterized as 4-(2-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxyphenacyl-D-glucopyranoside and p-acetylphenyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by a variety of spectral data (IR, UV, MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR). The simultaneous quantitative determination of salidroside and its impurities (Imp. 1, 2 and 3) was performed by reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection. Specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy were evaluated. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This guideline,

initially drawn up for use in the UK, is essentially based on ethical principles and should be applicable across other jurisdictions. The document specifically addresses the issues which surround obtaining consent from adults for the administration of systemic anti-cancer therapy in the haematooncology setting. Consenting to a treatment or procedure is a complex medical, ethical, and legal issue. The process of obtaining consent and the general steps that should be taken by the healthcare professional involved in obtaining consent from a patient are discussed, and the potential legal and ethical pitfalls which can be encountered are outlined. Of fundamental importance are the requirements that agreement must be given voluntarily, based on adequate information, and the patient must have the ability to understand and retain the information given and be in a position to use it in order to reach a decision.

In all cases, the movement

of the endograft had significa

In all cases, the movement

of the endograft had significant components in all three spatial directions: Two of the endografts had the largest component of movement in the transverse direction, whereas three endografts had the largest component of movement in the axial direction. The magnitude and orientation of the endograft displacement force varied depending on aortic angulation and hemodynamic conditions. The average magnitude of displacement force for all endografts was 5.8 N (range, 3.7-9.5 N). The orientation of displacement force was in general perpendicular to the greatest curvature of the endograft. The average BMS-777607 correlation metric, defined as the cosine of the angle between the displacement force and the endograft centroid movement, was 0.38 (range, 0.08-0.66).\n\nConclusions: Computational methods applied to patient-specific postoperative image data can be used to quantitate

3D displacement force and movement of endografts over time. It appears that endograft movement is related to the magnitude and direction of the displacement force acting on aortic endografts. These methods can be used to increase our understanding of clinical endograft β-Nicotinamide migration. (J Vase Surg 2010;51:1488-97.)”
“The preparation of 4-substituted 2-phenyltetrahydroquinolines from N-alkenylsubstituted 2-iodoanilines via intramolecular carbolithiation reactions

has been investigated. The stereochemical outcome of the carbolithiation reactions depends on the nature of organolithium employed to perform the lithium-halogen exchange, the solvent, or the use of additives, for example, TMEDA or chiral GDC-0973 mouse bidentated ligands such as (-)-sparteine. Thus, the 2,4-disubstituted tetrahydroquinolines are obtained with moderate diastereoselectivities (up to 77:23) and with ee up to 94% when Weinreb amide derivatives are used (R = CONMe(OMe)).”
“The temperature-dependent electronic structure of ferromagnetic double perovskite La2MnNiO6 has been investigated by employing soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The measured 2p XAS spectra for Mn and Ni ions at low temperature show that most of Mn ions are formally tetravalent (3d(3)) and that Ni ions are divalent (3d(8)). The measured Ni 2p core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectrum also supports the divalent states of Ni ions. With increasing temperature, the measured XMCD intensity decreases, in agreement with its high Curie temperature. The line shapes of both XMCD and XAS spectra do not change with temperature, suggesting that the valence states of La2MnNiO6 do not change with temperature. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopa

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) on Moroccan children’s schooling.\n\nMethods: Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). Seventy-four Fedratinib supplier healthy children were recruited

to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted.\n\nResults: All healthy children were able to attend school (p<0.0001), while 33% of children with JIA were unable to attend school due to their condition. The students with JIA who were able to attend school were absent much more often than controls (63% compared to 20%), with a highly significant p value (p<0.0001). Slightly less than half of the JIA patients (48.5%) failed in their schooling. In univariate analysis, there was an association between absenteeism and tender joints (p=0.02), disease activity score (DAS28) (p=0.007), Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) (p=0.01), and erythrocyte

sedimentation rate (ESR) (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only association persisted between DAS28 and absenteeism.\n\nConclusions: Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA MAPK inhibitor was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.”
“The study was conducted to investigate drug resistance, OXA-type carbapenemases-encoding genes and genetic

diversity in airborne Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) in burn wards. Airborne A. baumannii were collected in burn wards and their corridors using Andersen 6-stage air sampler from January to June 2011. The isolates susceptibility to 13 commonly used antibiotics was examined according to the CLSI guidelines; OXA-type carbapenemases-encoding genes and molecular diversity of isolates were analyzed, respectively. A total of 16 non-repetitive A. baumannii were isolated, with 10 strains having a resistance rate of greater than 50% against the 13 antibiotics. The resistance rate against ceftriaxone, cyclophosvnamide, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem was 93.75% (15/16), but no isolate observed to be resistant to cefoperazone/sulbactam. Resistance gene analyses Baf-A1 solubility dmso showed that all 16 isolates carried OXA-51, and 15 isolates carried OXA-23 except No.15; but OXA-24 and 0)CA-58 resistance genes not detected. The isolates were classified into 13 genotypes (A-M) according to repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) results and only six isolates had a homology >= 90%. In conclusion, airborne A. baumannii in the burn wards had multidrug resistance and complex molecular diversity, and OXA-23 and OXA-51 were dominant mechanisms for resisting carbapenems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that SjB10 is expressed in

Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that SjB10 is expressed in adult males, schistosomula and eggs but particularly in the cercariae, suggesting a possible role in cercarial penetration of mammalian host skin. Recombinant SjB10 (rSjB10) inhibited pancreatic elastase (PE) in a dose-dependent manner. rSjB10 AG-881 was recognized

strongly by experimentally infected rat sera indicating that native SjB10 is released into host tissue and induces an immune response. By immunochemistry, SjB10 localized in the S. japonicum adult foregut and extra-embryonic layer of the egg. This study provides a comprehensive demonstration of sequence and structural-based analysis see more of a functional S. japonicum serpin. Furthermore, our findings suggest

that SjB10 may be associated with important functional roles in S. japonicum particularly in host-parasite interactions.”
“We studied 28 individuals from a four-generation Chilean family (ADC54) including 13 affected individuals with cataracts, microcornea and/or corneal opacity. All individuals underwent a complete ophthalmologic exam. We screened with a panel of polymorphic DNA markers for known loci that cause autosomal dominant cataracts, if mutated, and refined the locus using the ABI Prism Linkage Mapping Set Version 2.5, and calculated two-point lod scores. Novel PCR primers were designed for the three coding exons, including intron-exon borders, of the candidate gene alpha A crystallin (CRYAA). Clinically, affected individuals had diverse and novel cataracts with variable morphology (anterior polar,

cortical, embryonal, fan-shaped, anterior subcapsular). Microcornea and corneal opacity was evident in some. Marker D21S171 gave a lod score of 4.89 (theta(m) = theta(f) = 0). CRYAA had a G414A transition that segregated with the disease and resulted in an amino acid alteration (R116H). The phenotypic variability within this family was significant with novel features of the cataracts and a corneal opacity. With the exception of iris coloboma, the clinical AICAR features in all six previously reported families with mutations in the CRYAA gene were found in this family. We identified a novel G414A transition in exon 3 of CRYAA that co-segregated with an autosomal dominant phenotype. The resulting amino acid change R116H is in a highly conserved region and represents a change in charge. The genotype-phenotype correlation of this previously unreported mutation provides evidence that other factors, genetic and/or environmental, may influence the development of cataract as a result of this alteration. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Aims:\n\nProteobacteria are widespread on earth. Recently, it has been discovered that a diverse repertoire of proteobacteria are also dominant in tap water.

We also observed that the major ribonucleoprotein YB-1 (Y-box-bin

We also observed that the major ribonucleoprotein YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein-1) preferentially bound to these OXPHOS mRNAs and regulated the recruitment of mRNAs from inactive mRNPs (messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) to active polysomes. YB-1 depletion led to up-regulation of mitochondrial function through induction of OXPHOS protein translation from inactive mRNP release. In contrast, YB-1 overexpression suppressed

the translation of these OXPHOS mRNAs through reduced polysome formation, suggesting that YB-1 regulated the translation of mitochondrial OXPHOS mRNAs through mRNA binding. Taken together, our findings suggest that YB-1 is a critical factor for translation that Selleckchem FK866 may control OXPHOS activity.”
“Apolipoprotein B-100(ApoB) is the main protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins and plasma ApoB levels reflect the total numbers of atherogenic lipoproteins. Induction of insulin resistance was accompanied by a considerable rise in

the production of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) containing ApoB and triglyceride. Increased plasma levels of ApoB and triglyceride in VLDL are common characteristics of the dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, we investigate whether phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced insulin resistance affects the increase of ApoB secretion. PMA increased ApoB Acalabrutinib mw secretion and transcriptional level of microsomal triglycericle transfer protein (MTP). PMA treatment also resulted in increase of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine312 (Ser312) and serine1101 (Serl1101) phosphorylation and induction of IRS1 degradation. Additionally, PMA induced activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (alpha, beta l, delta, zeta, theta), and reduced

AKT8 virus oncogene cellular homolog (AKT) activation in a time dependent manner. PMA-induced ApoB secretion, MTP promoter activities, and IRS1 degradation was significantly decreased by treatment Ispinesib of JNK and PKCs inhibitors. Orthovanadate, a potent tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 and decreased ApoB secretion of Chang liver cells although PMA was co-treated. From the results, it was concluded that PMA-induced insulin resistance, through induction of serine phosphorylation of IRS1 mediated by activated JNK and PKCs, increases ApoB secretion in Chang liver cells.”
“Transcription factors are key regulators of the pattern of gene expression in a cell and directly control central processes such as proliferation, survival, self-renewal, and invasion. Given this critical role, the function of transcription factors is normally regulated closely, often through transient phosphorylation.