In this paper, we argue that brain organization does not respect the commonsense learn more categories belonging to the faculty psychology approach. We review recent research from the science of emotion demonstrating that the human brain contains broadly distributed functional networks that can each be re-described as basic psychological operations that interact to produce a range of mental
states, including, but not limited to, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and so on. When compared to the faculty psychology approach, this ‘constructionist’ approach provides an alternative functional architecture to guide the design and interpretation of experiments in cognitive neuroscience.”
“Intact social memory forms the basis of meaningful interactions between individuals. Many factors can modulate the quality of social memory, and these have been studied in detail in rodents. Social memory, however, cannot be considered a single entity. The term social memory reflects different processes, such as social recognition of a novel conspecific individual and social
learning (or ‘learning from others’). This review summarizes the findings obtained with behavioral paradigms that were developed for the study of memory formation by social recognition and social learning. In particular, we focus on studies that include tests for social habituation/discrimination paradigms, tests for memory of a previously established social hierarchy and the social transmission
of the food preference test. The role of individual differences and the main neurobiological mechanisms Selleckchem Ispinesib (i.e., the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved) that have been implicated in each of these types of social-related memories are reviewed. In addition, we address the key modulatory influence of stress on the formation of these types of memories; discussing the contribution of central (corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF) and peripheral (glucocorticoids) stress systems and their interactions with the social neuropeptide systems. Overall, we present here a general overview of the current state of a thriving research area within the field of social neuroscience. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of glutaraldehyde (GA) concentration, time of Adriamycin manufacturer pretreatment, and type of tissue (porcine vs bovine) on quantitative and qualitative postimplant calcification of tissues.
Methods: Freshly obtained porcine and bovine pericardial tissues were each treated with increasing concentrations of GA (controls, 0.3125%, 0.625%, and 1.2%) for a fixed time (15 minutes) or increasing exposure times (5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes) at a fixed concentration of GA (0.625%). Pretreated tissues were subcutaneously implanted in 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats for 45 days before explantation. Quantitative calcium analysis was performed by flame atomic spectrophotometry.