In both groups none of the subjects did not have obstructive slee

In both groups none of the subjects did not have obstructive sleep apnea.\n\nResults: The baseline and the peak levels of salivary melatonin in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, no differences were found in the acrophase and the peak duration of salivary melatonin between the study and control groups (p>0.05). The highest values of melatonin were recorded at 04:00h in both the study buy Adriamycin and control groups. The amplitude and the 24h mean levels of salivary cortisol in the extensive nasal polyposis

group were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). The acrophase was delayed by about 8h in extensive nasal polyposis patients (p<0.001).\n\nConclusion: The circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol were found to be disrupted

in patients with extensive nasal polyposis. These results may be applicable as therapeutic tools in the future and melatonin drugs might be useful in the therapy of nasal polyposis like cortisol drugs. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The interaction of ilaprazole (IPZ), ilaprazole sulfone (IPZO) and ilaprazole sulfide (IPZI) with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the effect of IPZO and IPZI on the interaction CA4P in vitro of IPZ with BSA have been investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular

dichroism (CD). The results indicated that IPZ, IPZO and IPZI had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, and the binding affinities were significantly affected by structures in the order IPZ > IPZO > IPZI, while the van der Waals force and hydrogen bond played major roles in their binding with BSA. The analysis of synchronous fluorescence, FT-IR and CD spectra showed the change in secondary structure of BSA upon interaction with IPZ, IPZO or IPZI. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that their binding to BSA primarily took place in subdomain IIA. The presence of IPZO and MDV3100 clinical trial IPZI decreased the quenching constants of IPZ with BSA by about 68.4% and 95.1%, respectively, which possibly resulted from the existence of competitive binding between IPZ and its metabolites with BSA. However, IPZO and IPZI did not change the quenching mechanism of IPZ with BSA, while all the fluorescence quenching was initiated by static quenching procedure combined with non-radiative energy transfer. Our results may have relevant insight into IPZ’s bioavailability and efficacy affected by its metabolites. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In this study we addressed this gap by systematically manipulatin

In this study we addressed this gap by systematically manipulating cognition-emotion interaction in a social DM context, when the participants played a card game with a hypothetical opponent in a behavioral study (n=73) and a functional magnetic-resonance-imaging study (n = 16). We observed that payoff-based behavioral choices were influenced by emotional values carried by face pictures and identified neurocircuits involved in cognitive valuation, emotional

valuation, and concurrent cognition-emotion value integration. Specifically, while the vmPFC, amygdala, and ventral striatum were all involved in both cognitive and emotional domains of valuation, Small molecule library these regions played dissociable roles in social DM. The payoff-dependent responses in vmPFC and amygdala, but not ventral striatum, were moderated

by the social context. Furthermore, the vmPFC, but not amygdala, not only encoded the opponent’s gains as if self’s losses, but also represented a “final common selleck currency” during valuation-based decisions. The extent to which emotional input influenced choices was associated with the functional connectivity between the value-signaling amygdala and value integrating vmPFC, and also with the functional connectivity between the context-setting hippocampus and value-signaling amygdala and ventral striatum. These results identify brain pathways through which emotion shapes subjective values in a social DM context. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid, sanguinarine (SG) plays an important role in both traditional and modern medicine, exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. Under physiological conditions, there is an equilibrium between the LY3039478 in vitro quaternary cation (SG(+)) and a pseudobase (SGOH) forms of SG. In the gastrointestinal tract, SG is converted to dihydrosanguinarine (DHSG). All forms exhibit bright fluorescence. However, their spectra overlap, which limited the use of powerful techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy/microscopy. Our experiments using a combination of steady-state and time-resolved

techniques enabled the separation of individual components. The results revealed that (a) the equilibrium constant between SG(+) and SGOH is pK (a) = 8.06, while fluorescence of DHSG exhibited no changes in the pH range 5-12, (b) the SGOH has excitation/emission spectra with maxima at 327/418 nm and excited-state lifetime 3.2 ns, the spectra of the SG(+) have maxima at 475/590 nm and excited-state lifetime 2.4 ns. The DHSG spectra have maxima at 327/446 nm and 2-exponential decay with components 4.2 and 2.0 ns, (c) NADH is able to convert SG to DHSG, while there is no apparent interaction between NADH and DHSG. These techniques are applicable for monitoring the SG to DHSG conversion in hepatocytes.


“To better understand the effect of a new split variant of


“To better understand the effect of a new split variant of human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR H1b) on ASGPR ligands’ binding ability, we established a functional cell line which expresses this website ASGPR. The full lengths of ASGPRH1a and H2c fragments from human liver were amplified by reverse transcript PCR (RT-PCR) and inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2EGFP, pCDNA3.1 (Zeo+) respectively. The recombinants were co-transfected into HeLa cells. After selection by using Neocin

and Zeocin, a stably transfected cell line was established, which was designated 4-1-6. The transcription and expression of ASGPRH1a and H2c in 4-1-6 were confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The endocytosis function of the artificial “ASGPR” on the surface of 4-1-6 was tested by FACS. It was found that the cell line 4-1-6 could bind ASGPR natural ligand molecular asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR). After the eukaryotic plasmid H1b/pCDNA3.1 (neo) was transfected into cell line 4-1-6, H1b did not down-regulate the ligand binding ability of ASGPR. The eukaryotic expression plasmid H1b/pcDNA3.1 (neo) and H2c/pcDNA3.1 (neo) were co-transfected transiently into

Hela cell. Neither GSK2879552 cell line single H1b nor H1b and H2c could bind ASOR. In conclusion, a functional cell line of human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) which expresses both H1a and H2c stably was established. The new split variant H1b has no effect on ASGPR binding to ASOR. ASGPRH1b alone can’t bind to ASOR, it yet can’t form functional complex with ASGPRH2c.”
“Aims: We performed a meta-analysis check details of randomised trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary

artery stenosis (ULMCA).\n\nMethods and results: Pubmed and other databases were searched. Data were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Four randomised trials enrolling 1,611 patients were selected. At 12-month follow-up PCI, as compared to CABG, was associated with a significant risk reduction of stroke (0.12% vs. 1.90%, OR 0.14, 95% CI [0.04 to 0.55], p=0.004), with an increased risk of repeat revascularisation (11.03% vs. 5.45%, OR 2.17, 95% CI [1.48 to 3.17], p <0.001), a similar risk of mortality (OR 0.72,95% CI [0.42 to 1.24], p=0.23) or myocardial infarction (OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.54 to 1.74], p=0.91), leading to an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (14.37% vs. 10.14%, OR 1.50, 95% CI [1.10 to 2.04], p=0.01) and similar hazard of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (14.49% vs. 12.04%, OR 1.24, 95% CI [0.93 to 1.67], p=0.15).\n\nConclusions: PCI is comparable to CABG for the treatment of ULMCA with respect to the composite of major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events at 12-month follow-up.”
“Context: The original mild cognitive impairment (MCI) criteria exclude substantial functional deficits, but recent reports suggest otherwise.

The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for unheal

The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for unhealed, recurrent, and large ulcers and to characterize patients with active or recently healed venous ulcers.\n\nMethods\n\nWe identified 97 patients and assessed 103 ulcerated limbs in 90 patients. All patients underwent clinical examination, arterial and venous system evaluation, ankle-brachial GNS-1480 index determination, and ultrasound of the affected limb. Clinical characteristics included age,

gender, race, ulcer duration, time since first episode, history of recurrence, localization of ulcer, ulcer area, eczema, ochre dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, pain, body mass index, and medical history data. Risk factors were identified by univariate analysis and estimated odds ratios.\n\nResults\n\nWe assessed 90 patients (103 limbs) with active or healed venous leg ulcers, of whom 84.4% were Caucasian and 68.9% were female. Mean age was 56.0 +/- 13.3 years. Ulcers had remained unhealed check details for < 1 year in 40.7%. Lipodermatosclerosis, lower limb hyperpigmentation, edema, and eczema were seen in 96.7%, 95.6%, 94.4%, and 51.1% of patients, respectively. Pain was a frequent symptom in 74.4%. Body mass index was assessed in 85 patients: 30.6% were slightly, 36.5% moderately, and 7% severely

obese. Patient age > 60 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.0), extensive lipodermatosclerosis (OR 8.7), and previous history of ulceration (OR 19.9) were risk factors for unhealed ulcers. Time since first ulcer episode >= 2 years (OR 29.2) and incompetence of venous systems (OR 1.6) were risk factors for recurrence.\n\nConclusions\n\nLongstanding and large ulcers and recurrences are the

main problems encountered by venous ulcer patients. Severe lipodermatosclerosis, previous ulcer history, and time since first ulcer episode >= 2 years are significant risk factors.”
“Objective: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used to support children with respiratory failure. When extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration is prolonged, decisions regarding ongoing support are difficult as a result of limited prognostic data.\n\nDesign: Retrospective case series.\n\nSetting: Multi-institutional data reported Nepicastat to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry.\n\nPatients: Patients aged 1 month to 18 yrs supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure from 1993 to 2007 who received support for >= 21 days.\n\nInterventions: None.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: Of the 3213 children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period, 389 (12%) were supported >= 21 days. Median patient age was 9.1 months (interquartile range, 2.5-41.7 months). Median weight was 6.7 kg (interquartile range, 3.5-15.8 kg). Survival for this group was 38%, significantly lower than survival reported for children supported <= 14 days (61%, p < .001).

There is a division of the complete set of critical points into l

There is a division of the complete set of critical points into layers, the minimum energy surface forming the lowest.”
“Objectives: The exact pathogenesis of lumbar pain and radiculopathy is often poorly understood. Although nerve root entrapment resulting in mechanical pressure has been the most widely held concept to explain radiculopathy and lumbar pain, much of the recent research work increasingly supports an inflammatory reaction occurring in

the lumbar intervertebral disc tissue. In this study, we aimed to show the role of Myeloperoxidase as an inflammatory marker and the correlation of inflammation with lumbar radiculopathy.\n\nMethods: We evaluated 15 patients and 15 healthy controls of drug discovery a similar age and sex distribution. Myeloperoxidase activities in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were measured spectrophotometrically by the method of Lowry’s.\n\nResults: The mean Myeloperoxidase level was 440 U/mg protein in the patient group and 142 U/mg protein in the control group. The Myeloperoxidase levels of patients in the lumbar radiculopathy SC79 in vitro group were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.001).\n\nConclusion: In this preliminary study, we had found increased Myeloperoxidase

level in the lumbar disc patients with radiculopathy. The significantly high level of Myeloperoxidase might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to impingement of the nerve root caused by lumbar disc herniation. This led us to think that Myeloperoxidase might play a role in the activity status of the disease.”
“Background:

Hypertension is a common cardiovascular disease, affecting adults worldwide and it accounts for up to 30% of all deaths. The need for better control of arterial hypertension justifies observational studies designed to better understand the real-life management of hypertensive patients. The ASTRAL study was primarily designed to evaluate the percentage of hypertensive patients achieving blood pressure goals after eight weeks of treatment with a fixed-dose combination of ramipril/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).\n\nMethods: The study was a multi-centre, non-comparative, open-label, observational study conducted in 36 centres in five sub-Saharan African countries, namely Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar and Nigeria. Four hundred and forty-nine R406 research buy men and women 18 years of age or older with hypertension not controlled by an ACE inhibitor, a diuretic or any other mono-therapy or anti-hypertensive combination not containing a diuretic in a fixed dose were considered eligible for inclusion in this eight-week study. The study consisted of three visits, visit one (V1) at baseline, visit two (V2) after four weeks and visit three (V3) after eight weeks.\n\nResults: The mean age of the patients was 54.7 +/- 11.7 years (20-90 years) and most were categorised by the WHO criteria as either overweight or obese (71.6%).

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicates that (i)

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicates that (i) the configuration of the chiral center in 1 (JIMB01) is not indispensable for the activity, (ii) the phenyl ring is essential, and (iii) a substitution at the 6-position of the phenyl ring with a halogen enhances the activity. Among the analogues, 11e and 14b bearing 6-fluoro substitution showed potent activities against nine human tumor cell lines, including CEM (leukemia), Daudi (lymphoma), MCF-7 (breast cancer), Bel-7402 (hepatoma), DU-145 (prostate cancer),

PC-3 (prostate cancer), DND-1A(melanoma), LOVO (colon cancer), and MIA Paca (pancreatic cancer) with IC(50) values between 0.01 and 0.30 mu M. 14b inhibited human hepatocarcinoma by 86% in volume in nude mice. The mechanism of 14b is to inhibit microtubule see more assembly, followed by the M-phase arrest, bcl-2 inactivation, and then apoptosis. We consider 14b promising for further anticancer investigation.”
“The roles of DNA repair by apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases alone, and together with DNA protection by alpha/beta-type small acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance

to different types of radiation have been studied. Spores lacking both AP endonucleases (Nfo and ExoA) and major SASP were significantly more sensitive to 254-nm UV-C, environmental find more UV (>280 nm), X-ray exposure, and high-energy charged (HZE)-particle bombardment and had elevated mutation frequencies compared to those of wild-type spores and spores lacking only one or both AP endonucleases or major SASP. These findings further implicate AP endonucleases and alpha/beta-type SASP in repair

and protection, respectively, of spore DNA against effects of UV and ionizing radiation.”
“Objective This study examined factors underlying racial differences in pain and function among patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA)\n\nMethods Participants selleck kinase inhibitor were n = 491 African Americans and Caucasians enrolled in a clinical trial of telephone-based OA self-management Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales-2 (AIMS2) pain and function subscales were obtained at baseline Potential explanatory variables included arthritis self-efficacy, AIMS2 affect subscale, problem- and emotion-focused pain coping, demographic characteristics, body mass index, self-reported health, joint(s) with OA, symptom duration, pain medication use, current exercise, and AIMS2 pain subscale (in models of function) Variables associated with both race and pain or function, and which reduced the association of race with pain or function by >= 10%, were included in final multivariable models.\n\nResults In simple linear regression models, African Americans had worse scores than Caucasians on AIMS2 pain (B = 0 65, P = 0 001) and function (B = 0.59, P < 0.

27 (0 24-0 30) versus 0 40 (0 35-0 44) (p smaller than 0 001)

27 (0.24-0.30) versus 0.40 (0.35-0.44) (p smaller than 0.001). Conservative oxygen therapy decreased the median total amount of oxygen delivered during mechanical ventilation by about two thirds (15,580 L [8,263-29,351 L] vs 5,122 L [1,837-10,499 L]; p smaller than 0.001). The evolution of the Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio was similar LY3039478 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor during the two periods, and there were no difference in any other biochemical or clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Conservative oxygen therapy in mechanically ventilated ICU patients was feasible and free of adverse biochemical, physiological, or clinical outcomes while allowing a marked

decrease in excess oxygen exposure. Our study supports the safety and feasibility of future pilot randomized controlled trials of conventional compared with conservative oxygen therapy.”
“The red cusk-eel (Genypterus

chilensis) is an endemic fish species distributed along the coasts of the Eastern South Pacific. Biological studies on this fish are scarce, and genomic information for G. chilensis is practically nonexistent Thus, transcriptome information for this species is an essential resource that will greatly enrich molecular information and benefit future studies of red cusk-eel biology. In this work, we obtained transcriptome information of G. chilensis using the Illumina platform. The RNA sequencing generated 66,307,362 and 59,925,554 paired-end Apoptosis inhibitor reads from skeletal muscle and liver tissues, respectively.

De novo assembly using the CLC Genomic Workbench version 7.0.3 produced 48,480 contigs and created a reference transcriptome with a N50 of 846 bp and average read coverage of 28.3x. By sequence similarity search for known proteins, a total of 21,272 (43.9%) contigs were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated contigs, 335% GO annotation results for biological processes, 32.6% GO annotation results for cellular components and 34.5% GO annotation results for molecular functions. This dataset represents the first transcriptomic resource for the red cusk-eel and for a member of the Ophidiimorpharia taxon. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In CRT0066101 nmr this work four cationic additives were used to improve the surface activity of lung surfactants, particularly in the presence of bovine serum that was used as a model surfactant inhibitor. Two of those additives were chitosan in its soluble hydrochloride form with average molecular weights of 113 kDa and 213 kDa. The other two additives were cationic peptides, polylysine 50kDa and polymyxin B. These additives were added to bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) and the optimal additive-surfactant ratio was determined based on the minimum surface tension upon dynamic compression, carried out in a constrained sessile drop (CSD) device in the presence of 50 mu l/ml serum. At the optimal ratio all the BLES-additive mixtures were able to achieve desirable minimum surface tensions.

The aims of this study

were to investigate the safety and

The aims of this study

were to investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention for “true” CTO, defined by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 0 and duration >= 3 months, and to compare the outcome of successful versus failed procedures. A cohort of 172 consecutive patients with de novo CTOs of native vessels confirmed by angiographic review in which percutaneous coronary interventions were attempted was studied. End points included angiographic success, in-hospital complications, and long-term major adverse cardiac events. Technical success was obtained in 73.8% of CTO lesions (127 of 172). No deaths or nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarctions occurred in the hospital. Repeat percutaneous coronary interventions in the hospital were required Selleck AZD8055 in 1.6% of patients (2 of 127) in whom the CTOs were initially opened. Perforation during the initial failed attempts occurred in 6.7% of patients (3 of 45). One patient required operative

repair. After an average follow-up period of 2 years, patients with successful procedures experienced similar incidences of cardiac death and nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarctions as did patients with failed procedures (5.3% and 4.9%, respectively, p = 0.3). Patients with successfully opened arteries required target vessel revascularization more frequently, but this did not reach statistical significance (18.8% vs 0%, p = 0.06). In conclusion, attempts to open CTOs with the devices learn more available at the time of this registry were accompanied by a significant risk for perforation. Furthermore, successful recanalization did not translate into a reduction in 2-year mortality or nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarctions compared with patients with failed procedures. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Am J Cardiol 2008;102:1175-1181)”
“Schizophrenia has been considered a devastating clinical syndromerather than a single disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind the onset of schizophrenia

have been only partially elucidated. Several studies Selleck JPH203 propose that levels of trace elements are abnormal in schizophrenia; however, conflicting data generated from different biological sources prevent conclusions being drawn. In this work, we used synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence spectroscopy to compare trace element levels in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from two clones of induced pluripotent stem cell lines of a clozapine-resistant schizophrenic patient and two controls. Our data reveal the presence of elevated levels of potassium and zinc in schizophrenic NPCs. Neural cells treated with valproate, an adjunctive medication for schizophrenia, brought potassium and zinc content back to control levels.

The gender groups did not differ in absolute measures of colour o

The gender groups did not differ in absolute measures of colour or in the rate at which it deteriorated on display. However, the rate of colour deterioration was more

rapid than other meats such as beef, as has been demonstrated elsewhere. The average ultimate pH and water-holding capacity were similar for the two groups. Venison from hinds contained click here more coenzyme Q(10), taurine, anserine, carnosine, and vitamin E. Group differences in fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat appeared to be mainly due to levels of fatness, which was greater for the hind group. (C) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Epidemiologic studies have found that obesity is associated with malignant grade and mortality in prostate cancer. this website Several adipokines have been implicated as putative mediating factors between obesity and prostate cancer. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a member

of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein multigene family, was recently identified as a novel adipokine. Although FABP4 is released from adipocytes and mean circulating concentrations of FABP4 are linked with obesity, effects of exogenous FABP4 on prostate cancer progression are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of exogenous FABP4 on human NSC23766 cell line prostate cancer cell progression. FABP4 treatment promoted serum-induced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro. Furthermore, oleic acid promoted prostate cancer cell invasion only if FABP4 was present in the medium. These promoting effects were

reduced by FABP4 inhibitor, which inhibits FABP4 binding to fatty acids. Immunostaining for FABP4 showed that exogenous FABP4 was taken up into DU145 cells in three-dimensional culture. In mice, treatment with FABP4 inhibitor reduced the subcutaneous growth and lung metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of apoptotic cells, positive for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, was increased in subcutaneous tumors of FABP4 inhibitor-treated mice, as compared with control mice. These results suggest that exogenous FABP4 might promote human prostate cancer cell progression by binding with fatty acids. Additionally, exogenous FABP4 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, independently of binding to fatty acids. Thus, FABP4 might be a key molecule to understand the mechanisms underlying the obesity-prostate cancer progression link.”
“Background: Despite progress in identifying genes associated with breast cancer, many more risk loci exist. Genome-wide association analyses in genetically-homogeneous populations, such as that of Sardinia (Italy), could represent an additional approach to detect low penetrance alleles.

Visually significant, potentially life-threatening, and even trea

Visually significant, potentially life-threatening, and even treatable conditions were detected serendipitously during routine ROP screening

that may be missed or detected late otherwise. This pilot data may be used to advocate for a possible universal infant eye screening program using digital imaging.”
“The ability to control the differentiation of stem cells into specific neuronal types has a tremendous potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Nutlin-3a solubility dmso In vitro neuronal differentiation can be guided by the interplay of biochemical and biophysical cues. Different strategies to increase the differentiation yield have been proposed, focusing everything on substrate topography, or, alternatively on substrate stiffness. Both strategies demonstrated an improvement of the cellular response. However it was often impossible to separate the topographical and the mechanical contributions. Here we investigate the role of the mechanical properties

of nanostructured substrates, aiming at understanding the ultimate parameters which govern the stem cell differentiation. To this purpose a set of different substrates with controlled stiffness and with or without nanopatterning are used for stem cell differentiation. Our results show that the neuronal differentiation yield depends mainly on the substrate Ion Channel Ligand Library clinical trial mechanical properties while the Veliparib order geometry plays a minor role. In particular nanostructured and flat polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with comparable stiffness show the same neuronal yield. The improvement in the differentiation yield obtained through surface nanopatterning in the submicrometer scale could be explained as a consequence of a substrate softening effect. Finally we investigate by single cell force spectroscopy the neuronal precursor adhesion on the substrate immediately after seeding, as a possible critical

step governing the neuronal differentiation efficiency. We observed that neuronal precursor adhesion depends on substrate stiffness but not on surface structure, and in particular it is higher on softer substrates. Our results suggest that cell-substrate adhesion forces and mechanical response are the key parameters to be considered for substrate design in neuronal regenerative medicine. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 2301-2310. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“A pleiotropic hormone, leptin, secreted into saliva by the acinar cells of salivary glands is an important mediator of the processes of oral mucosal defense. Here, we report on the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in the signaling events that mediate leptin protection of sublingual salivary gland acinar cells against ethanol cytotoxicity.