Gender- and age-matched C57/BL6 wild-type (WT) and ATGL KO littermates were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mg/kg body weight of a 0.1-mg/mL suspension of tunicamycin (TM) in saline. Mice were reinjected after 24 hours. At 48 hours after the starting point, mice were killed by cervical dislocation. The experimental protocols were approved by the local animal care and use committees according to criteria outlined in the Guide for
the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (National Institutes of Health publication 86-23, revised 1985). The animals were kindly provided by Rudolf Zechner from the Institute of Molecular Biosciences at Karl-Franzens University (Graz, Austria) Fulvestrant cost and were generated as described previously.26 Animals were fed a standard rodent chow and were housed in a controlled environment with 12-hour light-dark cycles. TM, sodium oleate, and sodium palmitate were from Sigma-Aldrich (Vienna, Austria). Enzymatic assays were used to
measure serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), this website alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol (CHOL), TGs (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), and free FAs (Wako Chemical, Neuss, Germany). Lipoprotein subfractions were determined by quantitative agarose gel electrophoresis (Helena Biosciences, Gateshead, UK). For conventional light microscopy, livers were
fixed in 4% neutral buffered formaldehyde solution for 24 hours, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Sirius Red. Frozen tissue was embedded in Tissue Tec (Sakura Finetek Europe B.V., Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands), and sections of why 2 μm were stained with Oil Red O. Double immunofluorescence staining for cleaved caspase-3 and cytokeratin 18 was performed as described previously.30 RNA isolation, complementary DNA synthesis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed as described previously.31 All messenger RNA (mRNA) expression data were normalized to 36b4. Oligonucleotide sequences are available upon request. Hepa1.6 cells (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and knockdown for ATGL was performed by using a lentivirus containing a short hairpin RNA against ATGL, as described in the Supporting Materials and Methods. Hepatic nuclei were extracted with the NE-PER Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Extraction kit from Pierce Biotechnology (Rockford, IL). Srebp1c protein levels were determined using the polyclonal antibodiy Srebp-1(K10), sc-367 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).