We created a dichotomous variable in which visits categorized as mental health-related by this algorithm were coded affirmatively. For the second dependent variable, we measured whether a visit had a primary diagnosis of a substance use disorder. Two of the NYU ED algorithm categories were used to create this variable: alcohol and other substance use-related visits. We coded visits affirmatively
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical if the algorithm indicated that a visit was related to alcohol or other substance use. For the third dependent variable, we measured whether a visit had a primary diagnosis of an ambulatory care sensitive condition . These conditions include several common physical health-related conditions such as asthma, hypertension, and diabetes. We coded visits with an ICD-9-CM code indicating a primary diagnosis of an ambulatory care sensitive condition affirmatively. The study’s independent variable was ex-prisoner status, defined as an index release from the state’s correctional facility within the year prior to the ED visit. In these analyses, we do not differentiate between those visits Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical occurring while an individual was living in the community and visits occurring
while re-incarcerated during the year following Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the index release. Study covariates At the individual-level, we included variables for age (measured as a continuous variable), gender, race/ethnicity (black, Hispanic, white, other race), and the hospital facility in which the visit occurred. We excluded visits by individuals under 18 and over 70 years of age from the general population
sample to ensure appropriate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical comparison with the ex-prisoner sample, which did not include children and included few older adults. Indicator variables for year controlled for changes in ED visitation patterns over time. At the ZIP code-level, we measured unemployment rate (measured as tenths of a percentage point) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as a surrogate measure of both economic disadvantage and rate of uninsurance. Finally, we measured community Wnt inhibitor population at the ZIP code-level. As these population data were highly positively skewed, a natural logarithmic transformation was performed to decrease the influence of extreme values. Data analysis We first performed descriptive statistics within the ex-prisoner cohort (N=1434). We determined the timing of first Linifanib (ABT-869) ED visit after release, both overall and for the three diagnosis types of interest. We examined the relationship between first release from prison and first ED visit and used the chi-square test to assess associations between the timing of first ED visits and several relevant individual-level characteristics. We next compared visits by the ex-prisoner and general populations across several patient- and community-level characteristics. We used the chi-square test for differences in categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for differences in continuous variables.