Only level 4 reports are available on the appropriateness of liver transplantation for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma; no comparisons with second hepatectomy have been made. When discussing the treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, the therapy that was given at the first occurrence becomes an issue. The focus of this section, however, is only recurrence after hepatectomy, which is the standard treatment. Recurrence is reportedly noted in 50% and 80% of patients approximately 2 and 5 years, respectively, after hepatectomy
for hepatocellular carcinoma (LF1142911 level 2b). A characteristic of recurrence after hepatectomy for hepatocellular Roxadustat manufacturer carcinoma is that that hepatocellular carcinoma frequently recurs in the liver. It is reported
that 90% or more of first recurrences are in the liver, and the majority recur only in the liver. For recurrence in the liver after hepatectomy, in addition to the same mechanism HM781-36B supplier of cancer recurrence as in many other organs, the development of new hepatocellular carcinoma in the residual liver after resection (metachronous multicentric recurrence) is considered to be contributory, but it is difficult to distinguish them based on routine clinicopathological examination. For recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by extrahepatic lesions, radical treatment cannot be expected regardless of the presence or absence of intrahepatic recurrence and its mechanism. As such, the treatment policy is the same as that for the first occurrence. pentoxifylline When
recurrence is in the liver alone, if the mechanism is metachronous multicentric occurrence, its treatment policy is theoretically the same as that for the first occurrence. Actually, however, it is difficult to distinguish such recurrence from those due to intrahepatic metastasis. Thus, a problem in the selection of a treatment policy is how it should be altered from that for the first hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies in patients with recurrence in the liver alone comparing treated and non-treated groups or hepatectomy and another treatment are rated as only level 2b. All these reports are not free from the selection bias for each treatment modality and thus the results should be carefully interpreted. In a report that compared the long-term outcome of patients undergoing repeated liver resection (n = 117) with those underwent non-resectinal treatment (n = 50) for the recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, multivariate analysis revealed the prognostic benefit of repeated resection. No increase in operative mortality due to repeat resection was noted.