It is apparent that multiple, parallel and redundant pathways are involved in this process and that these pathways form interacting networks. Furthermore, it is possible that the pathways can functionally compensate for each other, for example in mouse
knockout studies. This makes sense given the importance of lens clarity in an evolutionary context. Apoptosis signalling and proteolytic pathways have been implicated in both lens fibre cell differentiation and organelle loss, including the Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis families, tumour necrosis factors, p53 and its regulators (such as Mdm2) and proteolytic enzymes, including caspases, cathepsins, calpains and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ongoing approaches being used to dissect the molecular pathways involved, such as transgenics, lens-specific gene deletion and zebrafish mutants, are discussed here. Finally, some of the remaining unresolved issues and potential areas for future studies are highlighted.”
“BACKGROUND: KPT 330 Life-threatening arrhythmias may complicate the hospital course of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention
(PPCI). The optimal duration of electrocardiographic monitoring in such patients is not well established. We aimed to determine the incidence and the time of occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias in STEMI patients undergoing PPCI.
METHODS: Data of 382 consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI were analysed regarding the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF), sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT) or bradycardia necessitating temporary or permanent pacing.
RESULTS: Of these patients, 55% BMS202 supplier had inferior STEMI, 41% anterior and 4% lateral STEMI. The infarct-related arteries were the right in 41%, the left anterior descending in 41%, the left circumflex in 16%, the left main stem in 1% and a vein graft
in <1%. During hospitalisation, 27 (7.0%) patients developed 29 life-threatening arrhythmias (incidence 7.6%): 19 episodes occurred during PPCI (VF n = 11, bradycardia n = 8), 9 episodes during GSI-IX concentration the first 24 hours after PPCI (VF n = 7, sVT n = 2), and 1 sVT episode in a hypokalemic patient on the 4th post-procedural day. A total of 17 patients (4.5%) died within the first 30 days, and 3 of these died during the PPCI procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: Life-threatening arrhythmias occur in a considerable proportion of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI during hospitalisation. Most of these arrhythmias occur during the PPCI procedure. Post-procedural life-threatening arrhythmias are virtually limited to the first 24 hours after PPCI. Thus, routine electrocardiographic monitoring beyond the first 24 hours after PPCI might not be required in most patients with uncomplicated STEMI.”
“Chronic low back pain is highly prevalent in Western societies. Large epidemiological studies show that 20% to 35% of patients with back pain suffer from a neuropathic pain component.