The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level vo

The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level voice representations indicates that adaptation is not

confined to vision but is a ubiquitous mechanism in the perception of nonlinguistic social information from both faces and voices.”
“The presence of low pKa N-hydroxylamines is beneficial in peptide chemistry as they reduce some base-mediated side reactions. Here we evaluated the applicability and buffering capacity of Ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyimino) acetate (Oxyma) in the prevention of aspartimide/piperidide formation and Pro-based overcoupling and compared it with the performance of HOBt and HOAt. In addition, the compatibility of these additives with the highly acid-labile 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin is examined. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept IWR-1-endo molecular weight Sci) 98: 8997, 2012.”
“A series of 2-(3-aminopiperidine)-benzimidazoles were identified as selective H-1-antihistamines for evaluation as potential sedative hypnotics. Representative compounds showed improved hERG selectivity over a previously identified 2-aminobenzimidazole series. While hERG activity could be modulated via manipulation of the benzimidazole N1 substituent, this approach led

to a reduction in CNS exposure for the more selective compounds. One example, 9q, retained a suitable selectivity profile with CNS exposure equivalent to known centrally active H-1-antihistamines. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a new real time PCR-based method for quantitative detection of topoisomerase II alpha Staurosporine purchase (TOP2A) aberrations and to evaluate its clinical utility in breast CDK activity cancer.\n\nDesign and methods: The method applied dually labelled hydrolysis probes and Pfaffl quantification method. The study group consisted of 83 consecutive breast cancer patients.\n\nResults: In the examined tumour samples median TOP2A gene dosage was 1.08 (range 0.34-7.55). TOP2A amplifications were found in 12 tumours (14.5%), no deletion was detected. Statistically significant positive correlation of

TOP2A gene dosage with nodal status, tumour grade, and HER2 protein status was found. TOP2A status also correlated with disease free survival.\n\nConclusions: The newly developed real time PCR assay showed to be fast and easy to perform. Determined by the method TOP2A gene dosage was shown to be a potent prognostic factor in breast cancer. (c) 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The evolutionary rate of a protein is a basic measure of evolution at the molecular level. Previous studies have shown that genes expressed in the brain have significantly lower evolutionary rates than those expressed in somatic tissues.\n\nResults: We study the evolutionary rates of genes expressed in 21 different human brain regions.

Functionally competent CD8(+) T cells specific against tumor anti

Functionally competent CD8(+) T cells specific against tumor antigens (e.g. Her2/neu and MAGEA3) as well as against viral antigens have been recently generated from cord blood mononuclear AZD7762 cell line cells suggesting that cord blood can be a source of “young” anti-tumor T cells for adoptive

cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, cord blood can give rise to antigen non-specific effector cells including NK cells and dendritic cells. Finally, umbilical cord blood anti-tumor specific T cell clones are unlikely to have participated in tumor immunoediting, making them more efficient than host T cells in eradicating tumor cells. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Deconvolution of the role of off-cycle species from the desired catalytic cycle leads to an optimized protocol for the prolinate-catalyzed amination of aldehydes. The scope of complex reaction networks will be greatly broadened by understanding ancillary rate processes that influence the productive catalytic pathway.”
“Background: Nucleoli are composed of possibly several thousand different proteins and represent the most conspicuous compartments in the nucleus; they play a crucial role in the Vactosertib in vivo proper execution of many cellular processes. As such, nucleoli carry out ribosome biogenesis and sequester

or associate with key molecules that regulate cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, apoptosis and the stress response. Nucleoli are dynamic compartments that are characterized by a constant flux of macromolecules. Given the complex buy QNZ and dynamic composition of the nucleolar proteome, it is challenging

to link modifications in nucleolar composition to downstream effects.\n\nResults: In this contribution, we present quantitative immunofluorescence methods that rely on computer-based image analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques by monitoring the dynamic association of proteins and RNA with nucleoli under different physiological conditions. Thus, the protocols described by us were employed to study stress-dependent changes in the nucleolar concentration of endogenous and GFP-tagged proteins. Furthermore, our methods were applied to measure de novo RNA synthesis that is associated with nucleoli. We show that the techniques described here can be easily combined with automated high throughput screening (HTS) platforms, making it possible to obtain large data sets and analyze many of the biological processes that are located in nucleoli.\n\nConclusions: Our protocols set the stage to analyze in a quantitative fashion the kinetics of shuttling nucleolar proteins, both at the single cell level as well as for a large number of cells. Moreover, the procedures described here are compatible with high throughput image acquisition and analysis using HTS automated platforms, thereby providing the basis to quantify nucleolar components and activities for numerous samples and experimental conditions.

Stable isotope analysis proved very useful to

assess inte

Stable isotope analysis proved very useful to

assess intersexual niche partitioning in rare species living in rugged terrains where it is logistically difficult to rely on direct approaches (i.e. direct observation, capture and radio-tracking).”
“Background and purposeIschaemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk of early recurrent stroke (RS). However, antithrombotics commenced at the acute stage may exacerbate haemorrhagic transformation, provoking symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH). The relevance of antithrombotics on the patterns and outcome of the cohort was investigated. VX-689 inhibitor MethodsA non-randomized cohort analysis was conducted using data obtained from VISTA (Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive). The associations of antithrombotics with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) outcome and the occurrence of RS and SICH (each as a combined end-point of fatal and non-fatal events) at 90days for post-stroke patients with AF were described. Dichotomized outcomes were also considered as a secondary end-point (i.e. mortality and good MCC 950 outcome measure at 90days). ResultsIn all, 1644 patients were identified; 1462 (89%) received

antithrombotics, 157 (10%) had RS and 50 (3%) sustained SICH by day 90. Combined antithrombotic therapy (i.e. anticoagulants and antiplatelets), 782 (48%), was associated with favourable outcome on ordinal mRS and a significantly lower risk of RS, SICH and mortality by day 90, compared with the no antithrombotics group. The relative risk of RS and SICH appeared highest in the first 2days post-stroke before attenuating to become constant over time. ConclusionsThe risks and benefits of antithrombotics in recent stroke patients with AF appear to track together. Early introduction of anticoagulants (2-3days post-stroke), and to a lesser extent antiplatelet agents, was associated

with substantially fewer RS events over the following weeks but with no excess risk of SICH. More evidence is required to guide clinicians on this issue.”
“Background: Automated hematological analyzers PFTα cost have contributed to more precise and faster results. They also make it possible to measure several blood cell parameters automatically. Among the parameters provided, platelet indices are probably the most ignored by clinical laboratories due to the difficulty of standardization, as well as being affected by a range of methodological problems. It has been suggested that each laboratory determines its own reference intervals with the equipment used.\n\nMethods: Our goal was to determine the reference range of platelet distribution width (PDW) in venous blood samples from 231 patients using the Pentra 120 ABX hematology analyzer.\n\nResults: The PDW median was 13.3%, with a reference range of 10.0%-17.

Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and

Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents. The child questionnaire included measures of vegetable consumption and child cognitions related to vegetable consumption (i.e. attitudes, social

influence, self-efficacy and intention). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding practices adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices INCB28060 research buy Questionnaire. Stepwise regressions were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of child cognitions on the associations between parental feeding practices and child vegetable consumption. Our results suggested a mediating effect of child self-efficacy on the association between parental restrictive behavior and child vegetable consumption. Other potential mediating effects were not supported in this study. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Salidroside is a bioactive compound mainly distributed in Rhodiola L (Crassulaceae). It has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine. In this paper, three impurities were found during the analysis of salidroside bulk drug. The enrichment of impurities was carried out by ODS column selleck products chromatography,

using methanol-water (13:87, v/v) as eluent and the purification of impurities was achieved by semi-preparative HPLC, using methanol-water (11:89, v/v) as mobile phase, respectively. Three impurities were characterized as 4-(2-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxyphenacyl-D-glucopyranoside and p-acetylphenyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by a variety of spectral data (IR, UV, MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR). The simultaneous quantitative determination of salidroside and its impurities (Imp. 1, 2 and 3) was performed by reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection. Specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy were evaluated. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This guideline,

initially drawn up for use in the UK, is essentially based on ethical principles and should be applicable across other jurisdictions. The document specifically addresses the issues which surround https://www.selleckchem.com/products/mi-503.html obtaining consent from adults for the administration of systemic anti-cancer therapy in the haematooncology setting. Consenting to a treatment or procedure is a complex medical, ethical, and legal issue. The process of obtaining consent and the general steps that should be taken by the healthcare professional involved in obtaining consent from a patient are discussed, and the potential legal and ethical pitfalls which can be encountered are outlined. Of fundamental importance are the requirements that agreement must be given voluntarily, based on adequate information, and the patient must have the ability to understand and retain the information given and be in a position to use it in order to reach a decision.

In all cases, the movement

of the endograft had significa

In all cases, the movement

of the endograft had significant components in all three spatial directions: Two of the endografts had the largest component of movement in the transverse direction, whereas three endografts had the largest component of movement in the axial direction. The magnitude and orientation of the endograft displacement force varied depending on aortic angulation and hemodynamic conditions. The average magnitude of displacement force for all endografts was 5.8 N (range, 3.7-9.5 N). The orientation of displacement force was in general perpendicular to the greatest curvature of the endograft. The average BMS-777607 correlation metric, defined as the cosine of the angle between the displacement force and the endograft centroid movement, was 0.38 (range, 0.08-0.66).\n\nConclusions: Computational methods applied to patient-specific postoperative image data can be used to quantitate

3D displacement force and movement of endografts over time. It appears that endograft movement is related to the magnitude and direction of the displacement force acting on aortic endografts. These methods can be used to increase our understanding of clinical endograft β-Nicotinamide migration. (J Vase Surg 2010;51:1488-97.)”
“The preparation of 4-substituted 2-phenyltetrahydroquinolines from N-alkenylsubstituted 2-iodoanilines via intramolecular carbolithiation reactions

has been investigated. The stereochemical outcome of the carbolithiation reactions depends on the nature of organolithium employed to perform the lithium-halogen exchange, the solvent, or the use of additives, for example, TMEDA or chiral GDC-0973 mouse bidentated ligands such as (-)-sparteine. Thus, the 2,4-disubstituted tetrahydroquinolines are obtained with moderate diastereoselectivities (up to 77:23) and with ee up to 94% when Weinreb amide derivatives are used (R = CONMe(OMe)).”
“The temperature-dependent electronic structure of ferromagnetic double perovskite La2MnNiO6 has been investigated by employing soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The measured 2p XAS spectra for Mn and Ni ions at low temperature show that most of Mn ions are formally tetravalent (3d(3)) and that Ni ions are divalent (3d(8)). The measured Ni 2p core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectrum also supports the divalent states of Ni ions. With increasing temperature, the measured XMCD intensity decreases, in agreement with its high Curie temperature. The line shapes of both XMCD and XAS spectra do not change with temperature, suggesting that the valence states of La2MnNiO6 do not change with temperature. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopa

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) on Moroccan children’s schooling.\n\nMethods: Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). Seventy-four Fedratinib supplier healthy children were recruited

to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted.\n\nResults: All healthy children were able to attend school (p<0.0001), while 33% of children with JIA were unable to attend school due to their condition. The students with JIA who were able to attend school were absent much more often than controls (63% compared to 20%), with a highly significant p value (p<0.0001). Slightly less than half of the JIA patients (48.5%) failed in their schooling. In univariate analysis, there was an association between absenteeism and tender joints (p=0.02), disease activity score (DAS28) (p=0.007), Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) (p=0.01), and erythrocyte

sedimentation rate (ESR) (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only association persisted between DAS28 and absenteeism.\n\nConclusions: Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA MAPK inhibitor was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.”
“The study was conducted to investigate drug resistance, OXA-type carbapenemases-encoding genes and genetic

diversity in airborne Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) in burn wards. Airborne A. baumannii were collected in burn wards and their corridors using Andersen 6-stage air sampler from January to June 2011. The isolates susceptibility to 13 commonly used antibiotics was examined according to the CLSI guidelines; OXA-type carbapenemases-encoding genes and molecular diversity of isolates were analyzed, respectively. A total of 16 non-repetitive A. baumannii were isolated, with 10 strains having a resistance rate of greater than 50% against the 13 antibiotics. The resistance rate against ceftriaxone, cyclophosvnamide, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem was 93.75% (15/16), but no isolate observed to be resistant to cefoperazone/sulbactam. Resistance gene analyses Baf-A1 solubility dmso showed that all 16 isolates carried OXA-51, and 15 isolates carried OXA-23 except No.15; but OXA-24 and 0)CA-58 resistance genes not detected. The isolates were classified into 13 genotypes (A-M) according to repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) results and only six isolates had a homology >= 90%. In conclusion, airborne A. baumannii in the burn wards had multidrug resistance and complex molecular diversity, and OXA-23 and OXA-51 were dominant mechanisms for resisting carbapenems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that SjB10 is expressed in

Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that SjB10 is expressed in adult males, schistosomula and eggs but particularly in the cercariae, suggesting a possible role in cercarial penetration of mammalian host skin. Recombinant SjB10 (rSjB10) inhibited pancreatic elastase (PE) in a dose-dependent manner. rSjB10 AG-881 was recognized

strongly by experimentally infected rat sera indicating that native SjB10 is released into host tissue and induces an immune response. By immunochemistry, SjB10 localized in the S. japonicum adult foregut and extra-embryonic layer of the egg. This study provides a comprehensive demonstration of sequence and structural-based analysis see more of a functional S. japonicum serpin. Furthermore, our findings suggest

that SjB10 may be associated with important functional roles in S. japonicum particularly in host-parasite interactions.”
“We studied 28 individuals from a four-generation Chilean family (ADC54) including 13 affected individuals with cataracts, microcornea and/or corneal opacity. All individuals underwent a complete ophthalmologic exam. We screened with a panel of polymorphic DNA markers for known loci that cause autosomal dominant cataracts, if mutated, and refined the locus using the ABI Prism Linkage Mapping Set Version 2.5, and calculated two-point lod scores. Novel PCR primers were designed for the three coding exons, including intron-exon borders, of the candidate gene alpha A crystallin (CRYAA). Clinically, affected individuals had diverse and novel cataracts with variable morphology (anterior polar,

cortical, embryonal, fan-shaped, anterior subcapsular). Microcornea and corneal opacity was evident in some. Marker D21S171 gave a lod score of 4.89 (theta(m) = theta(f) = 0). CRYAA had a G414A transition that segregated with the disease and resulted in an amino acid alteration (R116H). The phenotypic variability within this family was significant with novel features of the cataracts and a corneal opacity. With the exception of iris coloboma, the clinical AICAR features in all six previously reported families with mutations in the CRYAA gene were found in this family. We identified a novel G414A transition in exon 3 of CRYAA that co-segregated with an autosomal dominant phenotype. The resulting amino acid change R116H is in a highly conserved region and represents a change in charge. The genotype-phenotype correlation of this previously unreported mutation provides evidence that other factors, genetic and/or environmental, may influence the development of cataract as a result of this alteration. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Aims:\n\nProteobacteria are widespread on earth. Recently, it has been discovered that a diverse repertoire of proteobacteria are also dominant in tap water.

We also observed that the major ribonucleoprotein YB-1 (Y-box-bin

We also observed that the major ribonucleoprotein YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein-1) preferentially bound to these OXPHOS mRNAs and regulated the recruitment of mRNAs from inactive mRNPs (messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) to active polysomes. YB-1 depletion led to up-regulation of mitochondrial function through induction of OXPHOS protein translation from inactive mRNP release. In contrast, YB-1 overexpression suppressed

the translation of these OXPHOS mRNAs through reduced polysome formation, suggesting that YB-1 regulated the translation of mitochondrial OXPHOS mRNAs through mRNA binding. Taken together, our findings suggest that YB-1 is a critical factor for translation that Selleckchem FK866 may control OXPHOS activity.”
“Apolipoprotein B-100(ApoB) is the main protein of the atherogenic lipoproteins and plasma ApoB levels reflect the total numbers of atherogenic lipoproteins. Induction of insulin resistance was accompanied by a considerable rise in

the production of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) containing ApoB and triglyceride. Increased plasma levels of ApoB and triglyceride in VLDL are common characteristics of the dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, we investigate whether phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced insulin resistance affects the increase of ApoB secretion. PMA increased ApoB Acalabrutinib mw secretion and transcriptional level of microsomal triglycericle transfer protein (MTP). PMA treatment also resulted in increase of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine312 (Ser312) and serine1101 (Serl1101) phosphorylation and induction of IRS1 degradation. Additionally, PMA induced activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (alpha, beta l, delta, zeta, theta), and reduced

AKT8 virus oncogene cellular homolog (AKT) activation in a time dependent manner. PMA-induced ApoB secretion, MTP promoter activities, and IRS1 degradation was significantly decreased by treatment Ispinesib of JNK and PKCs inhibitors. Orthovanadate, a potent tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 and decreased ApoB secretion of Chang liver cells although PMA was co-treated. From the results, it was concluded that PMA-induced insulin resistance, through induction of serine phosphorylation of IRS1 mediated by activated JNK and PKCs, increases ApoB secretion in Chang liver cells.”
“Transcription factors are key regulators of the pattern of gene expression in a cell and directly control central processes such as proliferation, survival, self-renewal, and invasion. Given this critical role, the function of transcription factors is normally regulated closely, often through transient phosphorylation.

The results indicate that the proximal part of the ureter

The results indicate that the proximal part of the ureter MI-503 solubility dmso is prone to a higher shear stress during peristalsis compared with its middle and distal parts. It is also shown that the peristalsis is more

efficient as the maximum height of the contraction wave increases. Finally, it is concluded that improper function of ureteropelvic junction results in the passage of part of urine back flow even in the case of slow start-up of the peristaltic contraction wave. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4003316]“
“An algorithm for the assignment of phosphorylalion sites in peptides is described. The program uses tandem mass spectrometry data in conjunction with the respective peptide sequences to calculate site probabilities for all potential phosphorylation sites. Tandem mass spectra from synthetic phosphopeptides were used for optimization of the scoring parameters employing all commonly used fragmentation techniques. Calculation of probabilities was adapted to the different fragmentation

methods and to the maximum mass deviation of the analysis. The software includes a novel approach to peak extraction, required for matching experimental data to the theoretical values of all isoforms, by defining individual peak depths for the different regions of the tandem mass spectrum. Mixtures of synthetic phosphopeptides were used check details to validate the program by calculation of its false localization rate versus site probability cutoff characteristic. Notably, the empirical obtained precision was higher than indicated by the applied probability cutoff In addition, the performance of the algorithm was compared to existing approaches to site localization such as Ascore. In order to assess the practical applicability of the algorithm to large data sets, phosphopeptides from a biological sample were analyzed, localizing more than 3000 nonredundant phosphorylation sites. Finally, the results obtained for the different fragmentation methods Fludarabine purchase and localization tools were compared and discussed.”
“Hydrogels with four different plant-based microcrystalline cellulose concentrations were prepared using the

self-assembly technique. The interaction parameter between cellulose and water was determined by the classical Flory-Huggins theory, and was found to be around 0.44 with weak concentration dependence. The crosslinking density in these hydrogels was measured by both the Mooney-Rivlin equation and the Flory-Rehner theory. Reasonable consistency was found between the two methods albeit results from the Flory-Rehner theory were slightly higher due to the contribution from the physical crosslinks. The crosslinking density values for all four hydrogels determined from both methods were found to range from 19 to 56 mol/m3. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013″
“Dermatomyositis (DM) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the l

Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses Autophagy inhibitor between 14 and 30weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic

fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (-)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries.”
“To investigate the mechanism of activation of the genes for resistance-nodulation-division

(RND) family members MexE, MexF, and OprN for multidrug resistance (MDR), we mutagenized aefR and mexT, the potential regulators of mexEF/oprN transcription in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 (Pta 6605). BV-6 research buy AefR is a member of the TetR transcription factors, and is known to be required for production of the quorum-sensing molecules, acyl homoserine lactones (AHL), in P. syringae. Furthermore, we found that AHL-synthesis-defective Wnt inhibitor mutant strains in Pta 6605 showed enhanced expression of mexEF/oprN, and were highly tolerant to antimicrobial compounds such as chloramphenicol. MexT is a LysR-type transcription factor and is known to positively regulate transcription of mexEF/oprN in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The a dagger aefR mutant reduced the amount of growth in in vitro culture, caused the loss of

AHL production, reduced the swarming motility, virulence and expression of psyI (AHL synthase) and psyR (AHL transcriptional regulator), and enhanced mexEF/oprN expression and tolerance to chloramphenicol, whereas the a dagger mexT mutant retained the ability to produce AHL and did not show remarkable changes in in vitro growth, tolerance to antimicrobial compounds or virulence. Furthermore, unlike P. aeruginosa, the expression of mexEF/oprN is independent of MexT. These results indicate that (1) AefR is a regulator for the quorum-sensing system and MDR, and is required for swarming motility and virulence toward the host tobacco plant, and (2) MexT is not involved in the expression of mexEF/oprN in this bacterium.”
“A major mechanism for Na+ transport across epithelia occurs through epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). ENaC is a multimeric channel consisting of three subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma). The alpha-subunit is critical for ENaC function.