, 2010) In mice, transplantation of embryonic cells can enhance

, 2010). In mice, transplantation of embryonic cells can enhance 3Methyladenine the critical-period plasticity of the visual cortex (Southwell et al., 2010). A decade of preclinical research into the use of adult and fetal/progenitor cells in animal models of ischemic stroke (Bliss et al., 2007, Leong et al., 2013 and Sanberg et al., 2012) showed that transplanted cells may act through the secretion of soluble factors that promote neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation (Leong et al., 2013). Although much has to be understood regarding efficacy

and mechanisms of action, there are now multiple ongoing early-phase clinical trials using cell-based therapies in stroke patients (Misra et al., 2012). Invasive and noninvasive electrical stimulation may modulate neural circuits in a wide range of disease states and allow recovery of normal circuit functions (Demirtas-Tatlidede et al., 2013, Hallett, 2000, Holtzheimer and Mayberg, 2011, Hsu et al., 2012, Kuo et al., 2013, Nitsche and Paulus, 2000 and Perlmutter and Mink, 2006). As outlined above, DBS has rapidly emerged as an important therapeutic tool in movement disorders as well as other neurological and psychiatric diseases, although the precise underlying physiological Cisplatin research buy mechanisms need to be clarified. Noninvasive electrical stimulation of large cortical areas could be

achieved by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that depends on the induction of electrical currents via externally applied magnetic

fields, or by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) based on the penetration of externally applied electrical currents through the skull. Multiple studies have shown that both TMS and tDCS can impact motor and cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neurological or psychiatric disorders (Demirtas-Tatlidede et al., 2013, Hsu et al., 2012, Hummel et al., 2005 and Kuo et al., 2013). TMS is currently approved for medication-refractory depression (Demirtas-Tatlidede et al., 2013). In stroke, both tDCS and repetitive TMS over the injured Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase hemisphere when paired with training can improve motor performance and facilitate motor recovery (Grefkes and Fink, 2012 and Hsu et al., 2012). Stimulation-induced activity-dependent synaptic plasticity appears to be a potential mechanism of action. For example, an in vitro study found that both NMDA-R activation and BDNF are required for induction of synaptic potentiation via direct current stimulation that mimicked tDCS (Fritsch et al., 2010). Early work by Fetz and colleagues laid the foundation for real-time processing of neural signals and the induction of neural plasticity through feedback (Fetz, 2007). For example, precisely timed microstimulation of an M1 cortical neuron using the spiking signal of an adjacent recorded “presynaptic” neuron over a period of 2 days resulted in a reorganization of the motor output in a manner resembling STDP-like synaptic potentiation (Jackson et al., 2006).

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