The relative

risk of thyroid disorders for the pregnant w

The relative

risk of thyroid disorders for the pregnant women living in the village with high-nitrate levels in drinking water expressed as an adds ratio was 5.294 (95% confidence intervals 1.003-27.939; P = 0.0454) and was considered as significant. Statistically significance differences were found between the goiter rate in exposed and non-exposed pregnant women. The relative risk of thyroid dysfunction for the children exposed to a high-nitrate level, expressed as an odds ratio was 2.333 (95% confidence intervals 0.8491-6.412; P = 0.1396 and was considered not significant; the goiter prevalence Compound C purchase in the exposed children was also not statistically different. The results of the study confirmed the role of high-nitrate level in drinking water as a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable population groups. (C) 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential process in the growth and development of multicellular organisms. However, accumulating evidence indicates that unicellular eukaryotes can also undergo PCD with apoptosis-like features. This study demonstrates that after exposure to 0.8 mM H(2)O(2) for 9 h Entamoeba histolytica presents morphological and biochemical evidence of apoptosis-like death.

Morphological characteristics of apoptosis-like death including DNA fragmentation, increased vacuolization, nuclear condensation and cell rounding were observed for H(2)O(2)-exposed selleck chemical trophozoites with preservation of membrane integrity. Biochemical alteration in ion fluxes is also a key feature in PCD, and H(2)O(2)-exposed trophozoites showed overproduction of reactive oxygen species, increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and decreased intracellular pH. Phosphatidylserine was also found to be expressed in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of the H(2)O(2)-treated trophozoites. Pretreatment DMH1 ic50 with the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64d, the extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators EGTA and BAPTA/AM, and the Ca(2+) influx inhibitor verapamil prior to H(2)O(2) exposure abolished DNA fragmentation. The

oxidatively stressed trophozoites also showed an increased calpain activity, indicating involvement of Ca(2+)-dependent calpain-like cysteine proteases in PCD of E. histolytica. A homogeneous caspase assay showed no significant caspase activity, and administration of caspase 1 inhibitor also did not prevent the death phenotype for the oxidatively stressed trophozoites, indicating a caspase-independent apoptosis-like death. Our observations clearly demonstrate that there is a distinct calpain-dependent but caspase-independent pathway for apoptosis-like death in oxidatively stressed E. histolytica trophozoites.”
“In proteomics multi-dimensional fractionation techniques are widely used to reduce the complexity of peptide mixtures subjected to mass spectrometric analysis.

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