Likewise, NO production and relation with photosynthesis will be

Likewise, NO production and relation with photosynthesis will be studied in different models of isolated photobionts: Ramalina farinacea (L.)

MLN8237 manufacturer Ach. isolated Trebouxia sp. photobionts, and in Asterochloris erici (Ahmadjian) Skaloud et Peksa, SAG 32.85 = UTEX 911. Methods Chemicals The chemicals 2,6-di-tert-buthyl-4-methylphenol trichloroacetic acid (BHT), 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), 1,1,3,3, tetraethoxypropane (TEP), cumene hydroperoxide 88% (CP), and bisbenzimide H (Hoechst) were provided by Sigma Aldrich Química S.A (Tres Cantos, Spain); 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ethanol (etOH) were purchased from Panreac Química S.A.U (Barcelona, Spain); 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt

(cPTIO) and 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) were from Invitrogen S.A (El Prat de Llobregat, Spain); and Triton X-100 was from VWR Prolabo LY2874455 molecular weight (Barcelona, Spain). Lichen material Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. was collected in the air-dried state from Quercus rotundifolia Lam. at Sierra de El Toro (Castellón, Spain; 39°54’16″”N, 0°48’22″”W). Samples were maintained in a silica gel atmosphere during 24 h and frozen at -20°C until the experiment, 1 month after collection. Epifluorescence probes 2,7-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA) was used as probe in the detection of ROS (DCF, λexc = 504 nm, λem = 524 nm). DCFH2-DA is not appreciably oxidized to the fluorescent state without prior hydrolysis inside the cell. 2,3-Diaminonaphthalene (DAN) reacts with the nitrosonium cation that forms spontaneously from NO to yield the fluorescent product 1H-naphthotriazole

which emits blue fluorescence (λexc = 375 nm, λem = 425 nm). Since the selectivity of DAN for the nitrosonium cation is high, NO can be detected without the inhibition of its function [25]. Fluorometric Kinetics of Free Radical Production and Methamphetamine Chlorophyll Autofluorescence Dry fragments of lichen thalli were placed in black flat bottom 96 multiwell plates and kept at -20°C until use. One of the plates was rehydrated with deionised water 24 h before the experiment and kept at 17°C, PAR 35 μmol m-2 s-1 16 h photoperiod. Both dry and hydrated lichens were submerged during 5 minutes in deionised water 10 μM DCFH2-DA with or without c-PTIO 200 μM. The excess of solution was eliminated and the kinetics of DCF and chlorophyll emitted fluorescence were simultaneously measured in a SPECTRAFluor Plus microplate reader (Tecan Group Ltd., Männedorf, Switzerland). Excitation of both substances was performed at λexc 485 nm, emission of DCF fluorescence was recorded at λem 535 nm and chlorophyll autofluorescence at λem 635 nm, during one hour. Twelve replicates were analyzed by treatment and all values are referred to the click here weight of sample. Microscopy Fragments of lichen thalli were rehydrated for 5 min with either deionized water or 200 μM c-PTIO, and the corresponding fluorescence probe (10 μM DCFH2-DA or/and 200 μM DAN).

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