4% (127/142) agreement and 10 6% (15/142) mismatches Conclusi

4% (127/142) agreement and 10.6% (15/142) mismatches.\n\nConclusions: We may conclude that the point-of-care test can serve as a reliable alternative to the time consuming ELISA in the differential

diagnosis between functional and organic bowel disease. Furthermore, it seems to be reliable in the follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease patients.”
“We studied the effects of the cAMP-hydrolyzing enzyme phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) on the L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) and Small molecule library Ca2+-dependent secretion in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs). The selective PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (3 mu M) had a specific potentiating action on Ca2+ currents of MCCs (40% increase within 3 min). A similar effect was produced by the selective Selleck LDN-193189 beta(1)-AR agonist denopamine (1 mu M) and by the unselective PDEs inhibitor IBMX (100 mu M). Rolipram and denopamine actions were selective for LTCCs, and the Ca2+ current increase remained unchanged if the two compounds were applied simultaneously. This suggests that at rest, LTCCs in MCCs are down-regulated by the low levels of cAMP determined by PDE4 activity and that LTCCs can be up-regulated by either inhibiting PDE4 or activating beta(1)-AR. No other PDEs are likely involved in this

specific action. PDE4 inhibition had also a marked effect on the spontaneous firing of resting MCCs and catecholamine secretion. Rolipram up-regulated the LTCCs contributing to the “pace-maker” current underlying action potential (AP) discharges selleck products and accelerated the firing rate, with no significant effects on AP waveform. Acceleration of AP firing was also induced by the LTCC-agonist Bay K (1 mu M), while nifedipine (3 mu M) reduced the firing frequency, suggesting that LTCCs and intracellular cAMP play a key role in setting the pace-maker current regulating MCCs excitability. Rolipram increased also the size of the ready-releasable pool and the quantal content of secretory vesicles

without affecting their probability of release. Thus, rolipram acts on MCCs by up-regulating both exocytosis and AP firings. These two processes are effectively down-regulated by PDE4 at rest and can dramatically increase the quantity of released catecholamines when PDE4 is inhibited and/or cAMP is raised.”
“Fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices (slice voltammetry) has been used over the last several decades to increase substantially our understanding of the complex local regulation of dopamine release and uptake in the striatum. This technique is routinely used for the study of changes that occur in the dopamine system associated with various disease states and pharmacological treatments, and to study mechanisms of local circuitry regulation of dopamine terminal function.

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